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public by Nick Moore  606  0  3  0

The block structure for SnakeCoin.

The block structure for SnakeCoin.: snakecoin-block.py
import hashlib as hasher

class Block:
  def __init__(self, index, timestamp, data, previous_hash):
    self.index = index
    self.timestamp = timestamp
    self.data = data
    self.previous_hash = previous_hash
    self.hash = self.hash_block()
  def hash_block(self):
    sha = hasher.sha256()
    sha.update(str(self.index) + 
               str(self.timestamp) + 
               str(self.data) + 
    return sha.hexdigest()


public by François Briatte  233  0  3  0

Magick canny edge detector

Magick canny edge detector: canny.R
image_read("logo:") %>%
  image_convert('png', colorspace = 'gray') %>%
  image_edge(radius = 1) %>%
  image_negate() %>%
  image_transparent('white', 10000) %>%
  image_background("white") %>%


public by Vikram Dutt  288  0  3  0

Task-based concurrency manifesto draft

Task-based concurrency manifesto draft: TaskConcurrencyManifesto.md
# Concurrency in Swift: One possible approach

* Author: [Chris Lattner](https://github.com/lattner)

## Introduction

This document is published in the style of a "Swift evolution manifesto", outlining a long-term
view of how to tackle a very large problem.  It explores *one possible* approach to adding
a first-class concurrency model to Swift, in an effort to catalyze positive discussion that leads
us to a best-possible design.  As such, it isn't an approved or finalized design
prescriptive of what Swift will end up adopting.  It is the job of public debate on the open
source [swift-evolution mailing list](https://github.com/apple/swift-evolution) to discuss and
iterate towards that ultimate answer, and we may end up with a completely different approach.

We focus on task-based concurrency abstractions commonly encountered in client
and server applications, particularly those that are highly event driven (e.g. responding
to UI events or requests from clients).  This does not attempt to be a comprehensive survey
of all possible options, nor does it attempt to solve all possible problems in the space
of concurrency.
Instead, it outlines a single coherent design thread that can be built over the span of years to
incrementally drive Swift to further greatness.

### Concurrency in Swift 1...4

So far, Swift was carefully designed to avoid most concurrency topics, because we specifically did
not want to cut off any future directions.  Instead, Swift programmers use OS abstractions (like
GCD, pthreads, etc) to start and manage tasks.  The design of GCD and Swift's trailing
closure syntax fit well together, particularly after the major update to the GCD APIs in Swift 3.

While Swift has generally stayed away from concurrency topics, it has made some
concessions to practicality.  For example, ARC reference count operations are atomic,
allowing references to classes to be shared between threads.  Weak references are also
guaranteed to be thread atomic, Copy-On-Write (🐮) types like Array and String are sharable,
and the runtime provides some other basic guarantees.

### Goals and non-goals of this manifesto

Concurrency is a broad and sweeping concept that can cover a wide range of topics.  To help
scope this down a bit, here are some non-goals for this proposal:

 - We are focusing on task based concurrency, not data parallelism.  This is why we focus on
   GCD and threads as the baseline, while completely ignoring SIMD vectorization,
   data parallel for loops, etc.
 - In the systems programming context, it is important for Swift developers to have low-level
   opt-in access to something like the C or C++ memory consistency model.  This is definitely
   interesting to push forward, but is orthogonal to this work.
 - We are not discussing APIs to improve existing concurrency patterns (e.g. atomic integers,
   better GCD APIs, etc).

So what are the actual goals?  Well, because it is already possible to express concurrent apps
with GCD, our goal is to make the experience *far better than it is today* by appealing to the
core values of Swift: we should aim to reduce the programmer time necessary to get from
idea to a *working and efficient* implementation. In particular, we aim to improve the
concurrency story in Swift along these lines:

 - Design: Swift should provide (just) enough language and library support for
   programmers to know what to reach for when a concurrent abstractions are
   needed.  There should be a structured "right" way to achieve most tasks.
 - Maintenance: The use of those abstractions should make Swift code easier to
   reason about.  For example, it is often difficult to know what data is
   protected by which GCD queue and what the invariants are for a heap based
   data structure.
 - Safety: Swift's current model provides no help for race conditions, deadlock
   and other concurrency problems.  Completion handlers can get called on a
   surprising queue.  These issues should be improved, and we would like to get
   to a "safe by default" programming model.
 - Scalability: Particularly in server applications, it is desirable to have
   hundreds of thousands of tasks that are active at a time (e.g. one for every
   active client of the server).
 - Performance:  As a stretch goal, it would be great to improve performance,
   e.g. by reducing the number of synchronization operations performed, and
   perhaps even reducing the need for atomic accesses on many ARC operations.
   The compiler should be aided by knowing how and where data can cross task
 - Excellence: More abstractly, we should look to the concurrency models
   provided by other languages and frameworks, and draw together the best ideas
   from wherever we can get them, aiming to be better overall than any
That said, it is absolutely essential that any new model coexists with existing
concurrency constructs and existing APIs.  We cannot build a conceptually
beautiful new world without also building a pathway to get existing apps into

### Why a first class concurrency model?

It is clear that the multicore world isn't the future: it is the present! As such, it is
essential for Swift to make it straight-forward for programmers to take
advantage of hardware that is already prevalent in the world.  At the same time,
it is already possible to write concurrent programs: since adding a concurrency model
will make Swift more complicated, we need a strong justification for that complexity.
To show opportunity for improvement, let's explore some of the pain that Swift
developers face with the current approaches.  Here we focus on GCD since almost
all Swift programmers use it.

#### Asynchronous APIs are difficult to work with

Modern Cocoa development involves a lot of asynchronous programming using closures and completion handlers, but these APIs are hard to use.  This gets particularly problematic when many asynchronous operations are used, error handling is required, or control flow between asynchronous calls is non-trivial.

There are many problems in this space, including the "pyramid of doom" that frequently occurs:

func processImageData1(completionBlock: (result: Image) -> Void) {
    loadWebResource("dataprofile.txt") { dataResource in
        loadWebResource("imagedata.dat") { imageResource in
            decodeImage(dataResource, imageResource) { imageTmp in
                dewarpAndCleanupImage(imageTmp) { imageResult in

Error handling is particularly ugly, because Swift's natural error handling mechanism cannot be used.  You end up with code like this:

func processImageData2(completionBlock: (result: Image?, error: Error?) -> Void) {
    loadWebResource("dataprofile.txt") { dataResource, error in
        guard let dataResource = dataResource else {
            completionBlock(nil, error)
        loadWebResource("imagedata.dat") { imageResource, error in
            guard let imageResource = imageResource else {
                completionBlock(nil, error)
            decodeImage(dataResource, imageResource) { imageTmp, error in
                guard let imageTmp = imageTmp else {
                    completionBlock(nil, error)
                dewarpAndCleanupImage(imageTmp) { imageResult in
                    guard let imageResult = imageResult else {
                        completionBlock(nil, error)
                    return imageResult

Partially because asynchronous APIs are onerous to use, there are many APIs defined in a synchronous form that can block (e.g. `UIImage(named: ...)`), and many of these APIs have no asynchronous alternative.  Having a natural and canonical way to define and use these APIs will allow them to become pervasive.  This is particularly important for new initiatives like the Swift on Server group.

#### What queue am I on?

Beyond being syntactically inconvenient, completion handlers are problematic because their
syntax suggests that they will be called on the current queue, but that is not always the case.
For example, one of the top recommendations on Stack Overflow is to implement your own
custom async operations with code like this (Objective-C syntax):

- (void)asynchronousTaskWithCompletion:(void (^)(void))completion;
  dispatch_async(dispatch_get_global_queue(DISPATCH_QUEUE_PRIORITY_DEFAULT, 0), ^{

    // Some long running task you want on another thread

    dispatch_async(dispatch_get_main_queue(), ^{
      if (completion) {

Note how it is hard coded to call the completion handler on the main queue.  This is an
insidious problem that can lead to surprising results and bugs like race conditions.  For
example, since a lot of iOS code already runs on the main queue, you may have been using
an API built like this with no problem.  However, a simple refactor to move that code to a
background queue will introduce a really nasty problem where the code will queue hop
implicitly - introducing subtle undefined behavior!

There are several straight-forward ways to improve this situation like better documentation
or better APIs in GCD.  However, the fundamental problem here is that there is no apparent
linkage between queues and the code that runs on them.  This makes it difficult to design
for, difficult to reason about and maintain existing code, and makes it more challenging to
build tools to debug, profile, and reason about what is going wrong, etc.

#### Shared mutable state is bad for software developers

Lets define "Shared mutable state" first: "state" is simply data used by the program.  "Shared"
means the data is shared across multiple tasks (threads, queues, or whatever other concurrency
abstraction is used).  State shared by itself is not harmful: so long as no-one is modifying the
data, it is no problem having multiple readers of that data.

The concern is when the shared data is mutable, and therefore someone is changing it while
others tasks are looking at it.  This opens an enormous can of worms that the software world has been
grappling with for many decades now.  Given that there are multiple things looking at and
changing the data, some sort of synchronization is required or else race conditions, semantic
inconsistencies and other problems are raised.

The natural first step to start with are mutexes or locks.  Without attempting to survey the
full body of work
around this, I'll claim that locking and mutexes introduce a number of problems: you need to
ensure that data is consistently protected by the right locks (or else bugs and memory safety
issues result), determine the granularity of locking, avoid deadlocks, and deal with many other
problems.  There have been a number of attempts to improve this situation, notably
`synchronized` methods in Java (which were later imported into Objective-C).  This sort of
thing improves the syntactic side of the equation but doesn't fix the underlying problem.

Once an app is working, you then run into performance problems, because mutexes are
generally very inefficient - particularly when there are many cores and threads.  Given decades
of experience with this model, there are a number of attempts to solve certain corners of the
problem, including
[readers-writer locks](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Readers–writer_lock),
[double-checked locking](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-checked_locking), low-level
[atomic operations](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linearizability#Primitive_atomic_instructions)
and advanced techniques like
[read/copy/update](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Read-copy-update).  Each of these improves
on mutexes in some respect, but the incredible complexity, unsafety, and fragility of the
resulting model is itself a sign of a problem.

With all that said, shared mutable state is incredibly important when you're working at the
level of systems programming: e.g. if you're *implementing* the GCD API or a kernel in Swift,
you absolutely must be able to have full ability to do this.  This is why it is ultimately important
for Swift to eventually define an opt-in memory consistency model for Swift code.  While it is
important to one day do this, doing so would be an orthogonal effort and thus is not the
focus of this proposal.

I encourage anyone interested in this space to read [Is
Parallel Programming Hard, And, If So, What Can You Do About
It?](https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/paulmck/perfbook/perfbook.html).  It is
a great survey developed by Paul E. McKenney who has
been driving forward efforts to get the Linux kernel to scale to massively multicore
machines (hundreds of cores).  Besides being an impressive summary of hardware characteristics
and software synchronization approaches, it also shows the massive complexity creep that
happens when you start to care a lot about multicore scalability with pervasively shared
mutable state.

#### Shared mutable state is bad for hardware

On the hardware side of things, shared mutable state is problematic for a number of reasons.
In brief, the present is pervasively multicore - but despite offering the ability to view these
machines as shared memory devices, they are actually incredibly
[NUMA / non-uniform](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-uniform_memory_access).

To oversimplify a bit, consider what happens when two different cores are trying to read and
write the same memory data: the cache lines that hold that data are arbitrated by (e.g.) the
[MESI protocol](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MESI_protocol), which only allows a cache
line to be mutable in a single processor's L1 cache.  Because of this, performance quickly
falls off of a cliff: the cache line starts ping-pong'ing between the cores, and
mutations to the cache line have to be pushed out to other cores that are simply reading it.

This has a number of other knock on effects: processors have quickly moved to having
[relaxed consistency models](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consistency_model) which make
shared memory programming even more complicated.  Atomic accesses (and other
concurrency-related primitives like compare/exchange) are now 20-100x slower than non-atomic
accesses.  These costs and problems continue to scale with core count, yet it
isn't hard to find a large machine with dozens or hundreds of cores today.

If you look at the recent breakthroughs in hardware performance, they have come from
hardware that has dropped the goal of shared memory.  Notably,
[GPUs](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphics_processing_unit) have been extremely
successful at scaling to extremely high core counts, notably because they expose a
programming model that encourages the use of fast local memory instead of shared global
memory.  Supercomputers frequently use [MPI](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Message_Passing_Interface)
for explicitly managed memory transfers, etc.  If you explore this from first principles, the
speed of light and wire delay become an inherently limiting factor for very large shared
memory systems.

The point of all of this is that it is highly desirable for Swift to move in a direction where Swift
programs run great on large-scale multi-core machines.  With any luck, this could unblock the
next step in hardware evolution.

#### Shared mutable state doesn't scale beyond a single process

Ok, it is somewhat tautological, but any model built on shared mutable state doesn't work
in the absence of shared memory.

Because of this, the software industry has a complexity explosion of systems for [interprocess
communication](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inter-process_communication): things like
[sockets, signals, pipes, MIG,
XPC](https://www.mikeash.com/pyblog/friday-qa-2009-01-16.html), and many others.
Operating systems then invariably
introduce variants of the same abstractions that exist in a single process, including locks (file
locking), shared mutable state (memory mapped files), etc.  Beyond IPC, [distributed
and cloud APIs then reimplement the same abstractions in yet-another way, because
shared memory is impractical in that setting.

The key observation here is simply that this is a really unfortunate state of
affairs.  A better world would be for app developers to have a way to
build their data abstractions, concurrency abstractions, and reason about their
application in the large, even if it is running across multiple machines in a cloud ecosystem.
If you want your single process app to start running in an IPC or distributed setting, you
should only have to teach your types how to serialize/🐟 themselves, deal with new
errors that can arise, then configure where you want each bit of code to run.  You shouldn't
have to rewrite large parts of the application - certainly not with an entirely new technology

After all, app developers don't design their API with JSON as the input and output format
for each function, so why should cloud developers?

## Overall vision

This manifesto outlines several major steps to address these problems, which can be added
incrementally to Swift over the span of years.  The first step is quite concrete, but subsequent
steps get increasingly vague: this is an early manifesto and there is more design work to
be done.  Note that the goal here is not to come up with inherently novel ideas, it is to pull
together the best ideas from wherever we can get them, and synthesize those ideas into
something self-consistent that fits with the rest of Swift.

The overarching observation here is that there are four major abstractions in computation
that are interesting to build a model on top of:

  - traditional control flow
  - asynchronous control flow
  - message passing and data isolation
  - distributed data and compute

Swift already has a fully-developed model for the first point, incrementally refined and
improved over the course of years, so we won't talk about it here.  It is important to observe
that the vast majority of low-level computation benefits from imperative control flow,
[mutation with value semantics](https://developer.apple.com/videos/play/wwdc2015/414/),
and yes, reference semantics with classes.  These concepts are the important low-level
primitives that computation is built on, and reflect the basic abstraction of CPUs.

Asynchrony is the next fundamental abstraction that must be tackled in Swift, because it is
essential to programming in the real world where we are talking to other machines, to slow
devices (spinning disks are still a thing!), and looking to achieve concurrency between multiple
independent operations.  Fortunately, Swift is not the first language to face
these challenges: the industry as a whole has fought this dragon and settled on
[async/await](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Await) as the right abstraction.  We propose
adopting this proven concept outright (with a Swift spin on the syntax).  Adopting
async/await will dramatically improve existing Swift code, dovetailing with existing and
future approaches to concurrency.

The next step is to define a programmer abstraction to define and model the independent
tasks in a program, as well as the data that is owned by those tasks.  We propose the
introduction of a first-class [actor model](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor_model), which
provides a way to define and reason about independent tasks who communicate between
themselves with asynchronous message sending.  The actor model has a deep history of
strong academic work and was adopted and proven in
[Erlang](https://www.erlang.org) and [Akka](http://akka.io), which successfully power a large
number of highly scalable and reliable systems.
With the actor model as a baseline, we believe we can achieve data isolation by ensuring that
messages sent to actors do not lead to shared mutable state.

Speaking of reliable systems, introducing an actor model is a good opportunity and excuse
to introduce a mechanism for handling and partially recovering from runtime failures (like
failed force-unwrap operations, out-of-bounds array accesses, etc).  We explore several
options that are possible to implement and make a recommendation that we think will be a
good for for UI and server applications.

The final step is to tackle whole system problems by enabling actors to run in different
processes or even on different machines, while still communicating asynchronously through
message sends.  This can extrapolate out to a number of interesting long term possibilities,
which we briefly explore.

## Part 1: Async/await

NOTE: This section is concrete enough to have a [fully baked
proposal](https://gist.github.com/lattner/429b9070918248274f25b714dcfc7619).  From a
complexity perspective, it is plausible to get into Swift 5, we just need to determine whether
it is desirable, then if so, debate and refine the proposal as a community.

No matter what global concurrency model is settled on for Swift, it is hard to ignore the
glaring problems we have dealing with asynchronous APIs.  Asynchronicity is unavoidable
when dealing with independently executing systems: e.g. anything involving I/O (disks,
networks, etc), a server, or even other processes on the same system.  It is typically "not ok"
to block the current thread of execution just because something is taking a while to load.
Asynchronicity also comes up when dealing with multiple independent operations that can
be performed in parallel on a multicore machine.

The current solution to this in Swift is to use "completion handlers" with closures.  These are
[well understood](https://grokswift.com/completion-handlers-in-swift/) but also have a large
number of well understood problems: they often stack up a pyramid of doom, make error
handling awkward, and make control flow extremely difficult.

There is a well-known solution to this problem, called
[async/await](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Await).  It is a popular programming style that
was first introduced in C# and was later adopted in many other languages, including Python,
Javascript, Scala, Hack, Dart, Kotlin ... etc.  Given its widespread success and acceptance
by the industry, I suggest that we do the obvious thing and support this in Swift.

### async/await design for Swift

The general design of async/await drops right into Swift, but a few tweaks makes it fit into
the rest of Swift more consistently.  We suggest adding `async` as a function modifier akin
to the existing `throws` function modifier.  Functions (and function types) can be declared as
`async`, and this indicates that the function is a
[coroutine](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coroutine).  Coroutines are functions that may return
normally with a value, or may suspend themselves and internally return a continuation.

This approach allows the completion handler to be absorbed into the language.  For example,
before you might write:

func loadWebResource(_ path: String, completionBlock: (result: Resource) -> Void) { ... }
func decodeImage(_ r1: Resource, _ r2: Resource, completionBlock: (result: Image) -> Void)
func dewarpAndCleanupImage(_ i : Image, completionBlock: (result: Image) -> Void)

func processImageData1(completionBlock: (result: Image) -> Void) {
    loadWebResource("dataprofile.txt") { dataResource in
        loadWebResource("imagedata.dat") { imageResource in
            decodeImage(dataResource, imageResource) { imageTmp in
                dewarpAndCleanupImage(imageTmp) { imageResult in

whereas now you can write:

func loadWebResource(_ path: String) async -> Resource
func decodeImage(_ r1: Resource, _ r2: Resource) async -> Image
func dewarpAndCleanupImage(_ i : Image) async -> Image

func processImageData1() async -> Image {
    let dataResource  = await loadWebResource("dataprofile.txt")
    let imageResource = await loadWebResource("imagedata.dat")
    let imageTmp      = await decodeImage(dataResource, imageResource)
    let imageResult   = await dewarpAndCleanupImage(imageTmp)
    return imageResult

`await` is a keyword that works like the existing `try` keyword: it is a noop at runtime, but
indicate to a maintainer of the code that non-local control flow can happen at that point.
Besides the addition of the `await` keyword, the async/await model allows you to write
obvious and clean imperative code, and the compiler handles the generation of state
machines and callback handlers for you.

Overall, adding this will dramatically improve the experience of working with completion
handlers, and provides a natural model to compose futures and other APIs on top of.
More details are contained in [the full

### New asynchronous APIs

The introduction of async/await into the language is a great opportunity to introduce more
asynchronous APIs to Cocoa and perhaps even entire new framework extensions (like a revised
asynchronous file I/O API).  The [Server APIs Project](https://swift.org/server-apis/) is also
actively working to define new Swift APIs, many of which are intrinsically asynchronous.

## Part 2: Actors

Given the ability define and use asynchronous APIs with expressive "imperative style" control
flow, we now look to give developers a way to carve up their application into multiple
concurrent tasks.  We propose adopting the model of
[actors](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor_model): Actors naturally represent real-world
concepts like "a document", "a device", "a network request", and are particularly well suited
to event driven architectures like UI applications, servers, device drivers, etc.

So what is an actor?  As a Swift programmer, it is easiest to think of an actor as a
combination of a `DispatchQueue`, the data that queue protects, and messages that can be
run on that queue.  Because they are embodied by an (internal) queue abstraction, you
communicate with Actors asynchronously, and actors guarantee that the data they protect is
only touched by the code running on that queue.  This provides an "island of serialization
in a sea of concurrency".

It is straight-forward to adapt legacy software to an actor interface, and it is possible to
progressively adopt actors in a system that is already built on top of GCD or other
concurrency primitives.

### Actor Model Theory

Actors have a deep theoretical basis and have been explored by academia since the 1970s -
the [wikipedia page on actors](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor_model) and the
[c2 wiki page](http://wiki.c2.com/?ActorsModel) are good places
to start reading if you'd like to dive into some of the theoretical fundamentals that back the
model.  A challenge of this work (for Swift's purposes) is that academia assumes a pure actor
model ("everything is an actor"), and assumes a model of communication so limited that it
may not be acceptable for Swift.  I'll provide a broad stroke summary of the advantages of
this pure model, then talk about how to address the problems.

As Wikipedia says:

> In response to a message that it receives, an actor can: make local decisions, create more
> actors, send more messages, and determine how to respond to the next message received.
> Actors may modify private state, but can only affect each other through messages (avoiding
> the need for any locks).

Actors are cheap to construct and you communicate with an actor using efficient
unidirectional asynchronous message sends ("posting a message in a mailbox").
Because these messages are unidirectional, there is no waiting, and thus deadlocks are
impossible.  In the academic model, all data sent in these messages is deep copied, which
means that there is no data sharing possible between actors.  Because actors cannot touch
each other's state (and have no access to global state), there is no need for any
synchronization constructs, eliminating all of the problems with shared mutable state.

To make this work pragmatically in the context of Swift, we need to solve several problems:

- we need a strong computational foundation for all the computation within a task.  Good
  news: this is already done in Swift 1...4!
- unidirectional async message sends are great, but inconvenient for some things.  We want
  a model that allows messages to return a value (even if we encourage them not to), which
  requires a way to wait for that value. This is the point of adding async/await.
- we need to make message sends efficient: relying on a deep copy of each argument is not
  acceptable.  Fortunately - and not accidentally - we already have Copy-On-Write (🐮) value
  types and [move semantics](https://github.com/apple/swift/blob/master/docs/OwnershipManifesto.md)
  on the way as a basis to build from.  The trick is dealing with reference types, which are
  discussed below.
- we need to figure out what to do about global mutable state, which already exists in Swift.
  One option is considered below.
### Example actor design for Swift

There are several possible ways to manifest the idea of actors into Swift.  For the purposes of
this manifesto, I'll describe them as a new type in Swift because it is the least confusing way
to explain the ideas and this isn't a formal proposal.  I'll note right here up front that this is
only one possible design: the right approach may be for actors to be a special kind of class,
a model described below.

With this design approach, you'd define an actor with the `actor` keyword.  An actor can
have any number of data members declared as instance members, can have normal methods,
and extensions work with them as you'd expect.  Actors are reference types and have an
identity which can be passed around as a value.  Actors can conform to protocols and
otherwise dovetail with existing Swift features as you'd expect.

We need a simple running example, so lets imagine we're building the data model for an app
that has a tableview with a list of strings.  The app has UI to add and manipulate the list.  It
might look something like this:

  actor TableModel {
    let mainActor : TheMainActor
    var theList : [String] = [] {
      didSet {
    init(mainActor: TheMainActor) { self.mainActor = mainActor }

    // this checks to see if all the entries in the list are capitalized:
    // if so, it capitalize the string before returning it to encourage
    // capitalization consistency in the list.
    func prettify(_ x : String) -> String {
      // ... details omitted, it just pokes theList directly ...

    actor func add(entry: String) {

This illustrates the key points of an actor model:

- The actor defines the state local to it as instance data, in this case the reference to
   `mainActor` and `theList` is the data in the actor.
- Actors can send messages to any other actor they have a reference to, using traditional
  dot syntax.
- Normal (non-actor) methods can be defined on the actor for convenience, and
  they have full access to the state within their `self` actor.
- `actor` methods are the messages that actors accept.  Marking a method as `actor`
  imposes certain restrictions upon it, described below.
- It isn't shown in the example, but new instances of the actor are created by using the
  initializer just like any other type: `let dataModel = TableModel(mainActor)`.
- Also not shown in the example, but `actor` methods are implicitly `async`, so they can
  freely call `async` methods and `await` their results.

It has been found in other actor systems that an actor abstraction like this encourage the
"right" abstractions in applications, and map well to the conceptual way that programmers
think about their data.  For example, given this data model it is easy to create multiple
instances of this actor, one for each document in an MDI application.

This is a straight-forward implementation of the actor model in Swift and is enough to achieve
the basic advantages of the model.  However, it is important to note that there are a number
of limitations being imposed here that are not obvious, including:

- An `actor` method cannot return a value, throw an error, or have an `inout` parameter.
- All of the parameters must produce independent values when copied (see below).
- Local state and non-`actor` methods may only be accessed by methods defined lexically
  on the actor or in an extension to it (whether they are marked `actor` or otherwise).

### Extending the model through await

The first limitation (that `actor` methods cannot return values) is easy to address as we've
already discussed.  Say the app developer needs a quick way to get the number of entries in
the list, a way that is visible to other actors they have running around.  We should simply
allow them to define:

  extension TableModel {
    actor func getNumberOfEntries() -> Int {
      return theList.count

This allows them to await the result from other actors:

  print(await dataModel.getNumberOfEntries())

This dovetails perfectly with the rest of the async/await model.  It is unrelated to this
manifesto, but we'll observe that it would be more idiomatic way to
define that specific example is as an `actor var`.  Swift currently doesn't allow property
accessors to `throw` or be `async`.  When this limitation is relaxed, it would be
straight-forward to allow `actor var`s to provide the more natural API.

Note that this extension makes the model far more usable in cases like this, but erodes the
"deadlock free" guarantee of the actor model.  Continuing the analogy that each actor is
backed by a GCD queue, an await on an `actor` method becomes analogous to calling
`dispatch_sync` on that queue.  Because only one message is processed by the actor at a
time, if an actor waits on itself directly (possibly through a chain of references) a deadlock will
occur - in exactly the same way as it happens with `dispatch_sync`:

  extension TableModel {
    actor func f() {
       let x = await self.getNumberOfEntries()   // trivial deadlock.

The trivial case like this can also be trivially diagnosed by the compiler.  The complex case
would ideally be diagnosed at runtime with a trap, depending on the runtime implementation

The solution for this is to encourage people to use `Void`-returning `actor` methods that "fire
and forget".  There are several reasons to believe that these will be the most common: the
async/await model described syntactically encourages people not to use it (by requiring
marking, etc), many of the common applications of actors are event-driven applications
(which are inherently one way), the eventual design of UI and other system frameworks
can encourage the right patterns from app developers, and of course documentation can
describe best practices.

### About that main thread

The example above shows `mainActor` being passed in, following theoretically pure actor
hygiene.  However, the main thread in UIKit and AppKit are already global state, so we might
as well admit that and make code everywhere nicer.  As such, it makes sense for AppKit and
UIKit to define and vend a public global constant actor reference, e.g. something like this:

public actor MainActor {  // Bikeshed: could be named "actor UI {}"
   private init() {}      // You can't make another one of these.
   // Helpful public stuff could be put here to make app developers happy. :-)
public let mainActor = MainActor()

This would allow app developers to put their extensions on `MainActor`, making their code
more explicit and clear about what *needs* to be run on the main thread.  If we got really
crazy, someday Swift should allow data members to be defined in extensions on classes,
and App developers would then be able to put their state that must be manipulated on the
main thread directly on the MainActor.

### Data isolation

The way that actors eliminate shared mutable state and explicit synchronization is through
deep copying all of the data that is passed to an actor in a message send, and preventing
direct access to actor state without going through these message sends.  This all composes
nicely, but can quickly introduce inefficiencies in practice because of all the data copying
that happens.

Swift is well positioned to deal with this for a number of reasons: its strong focus on value
semantics means that copying of these values is a core operation understood and known by
Swift programmers everywhere.  Second, the use of Copy-On-Write (🐮) as an
implementation approach fits perfectly with this model.  Note how, in the example above,
the DataModel actor sends a copy of the `theList` array back to the UI thread so it can
update itself.  In Swift, this is a super efficient O(1) operation that does some ARC stuff: it
doesn't actually copy or touch the elements of the array.

The third piece, which is still in development, will come as a result of the work on adding
[ownership semantics](https://github.com/apple/swift/blob/master/docs/OwnershipManifesto.md)
to Swift.  When this is available, advanced programmers will have the ability to *move*
complex values between actors, which is typically also a super-efficient O(1) operation.

This leaves us with three open issues: 1) how do we know whether something has proper
value semantics, 2) what do we do about reference types (classes and closures), and 3) what
do we do about global state.  All three of these options should be explored in detail, because
there are many different possible answers to these. I will explore a simple model below in
order to provide an existence proof for a design, but I do not claim that it is the best model
we can find.

#### Does a type provide proper value semantics?

This is something that many many Swift programmers have wanted to be able to know the
answer to, for example when defining generic algorithms that are only correct in the face of
proper value semantics.  There have been numerous proposals for how to determine this,
and I will not attempt to summarize them, instead I'll outline a simple proposal just to provide
an existence proof for an answer:

- Start by defining a simple marker protocol (the name of which is intentionally silly to reduce
  early bikeshedding) with a single requirement:
  `protocol ValueSemantical { func valueSemanticCopy() -> Self }`
- Conform all of the applicable standard library types to `ValueSemantical`.  For example,
  Array conforms when its elements conform - note that an array of reference types doesn't
  always provide the semantics we need.
- Teach the compiler to synthesize conformance for structs and enums whose members are
  all `ValueSemantical`, just like we do for `Codable`.
- The compiler just checks for conformance to the `ValueSemantical` protocol and
  rejects any arguments and return values that do not conform.

The reiterate, the name `ValueSemantical` really isn't the right name for this: things like
`UnsafePointer`, for example, shouldn't conform.  Enumerating the possible options and
evaluating the naming tradeoffs between them is a project for another day though.

It is important to realize that this design does *not guarantee memory safety*.  Someone
could implement the protocol in the wrong way (thus lying about satisfying the requirements)
and shared mutable state could occur.  In the author's opinion, this is the right tradeoff:
solving this would require introducing onerous type system mechanics (e.g. something like
the capabilities system in the [Pony](https://www.ponylang.org/) language).  Swift already
provides a model where memory safe APIs (e.g. `Array`) are implemented in terms of memory
unsafety (e.g. `UnsafePointer`), the approach described here is directly analogous.

*Alternate Design*: Another approach is to eliminate the requirement from the protocol:
just use the protocol as a marker, which is applied to types that already have the right
behavior.  When it is necessary to customize the copy operation (e.g. for a reference type),
the solution would be to box values of that type in a struct that provides the right value
semantics.  This would make it more awkward to conform, but this design eliminates having
"another kind of copy" operation, and encourages more types to provide value semantics.

#### Reference types: Classes

The solution to this is simple: classes need to conform to `ValueSemantical` (and
implement the requirement) properly, or else they cannot be passed as a parameter or result
of an `actor` method.  In the author's opinion, giving classes proper value semantics will not
be that big of a deal in practice for a number of reasons:

- A number of classes in Cocoa are already semantically immutable, making it trivial and
  cheap for them to conform.
- The default (non-conformance) is the right default: the only classes that conform will be
  ones that a human thought about.
- Retroactive conformance allows app developers to handle cases not addressed by the
  framework engineers.
- Cocoa has a number of classes (e.g. the entire UI frameworks) that are only usable on the
  main thread.  By definition, these won't get passed around.

Beyond that, when you start working with an actor system, it is an inherent part of the
application design that you don't allocate and pass around big object graphs: you allocate
them in the actor you intend to manipulate them with.  This is something that has been
found true in Scala/Akka for example.

#### Reference types: Closures and Functions

It is not safe to pass an arbitrary value with function type across an actor message,
because it could close over arbitrary actor-local data.  If that data is closed over
by-reference, then the recipient actor would have arbitrary access to data in the sending
actor's state.  That said, there is at least one important exception that we should carve
out: it is safe to pass a closure *literal* when it is known that it only closes over
data by copy: using the same `ValueSemantical` copy semantics described above.

This happens to be an extremely useful carveout, because it permits some interesting "callback"
abstractions to be naturally expressed without tight coupling between actors.  Here is a silly

    otherActor.doSomething { self.incrementCount($0) }

In this case `OtherActor` doesn't have to know about `incrementCount` which is defined
on the self actor, reducing coupling between the actors.

#### Global mutable state

Since we're friends, I'll be straight with you: there are no great answers here.  Swift and C
already support global mutable state, so the best we can do is discourage the use of it.  We
cannot automatically detect a problem because actors need to be able to transitively use
random code that isn't defined on the actor.  For example:

func calculate(thing : Int) -> Int { ... }

actor Foo {
  actor func exampleOperation() {
     let x = calculate(thing: 42)

There is no practical way to know whether 'calculate' is thread-safe or not.  The only solution
is to scatter tons of annotations everywhere, including in headers for C code.  I think that
would be a non-starter.

In practice, this isn't as bad as it sounds, because the most common operations
that people use (e.g. `print`) are already internally synchronizing, largely because people are
already writing multithreaded code.  While it would be nice to magically solve this long
standing problem with legacy systems, I think it is better to just completely ignore it and tell
developers not to define or use global variables (global `let`s are safe).

All hope is not lost though: Perhaps we could consider deprecating global `var`s from Swift
to further nudge people away from them. Also, any accesses to unsafe global global mutable
state from an actor context can and should be warned about.  Taking some steps like this
should eliminate the most obvious bugs.

### Scalable Runtime

Thus far, we've dodged the question about how the actor runtime should be implemented.
This is intentional because I'm not a runtime expert!  From my perspective, GCD is a
reasonable baseline to start from: it provides the right semantics, it has good low-level
performance, and it has advanced features like Quality of Service support which are just as
useful for actors as they are for anything else.  It would be easy to provide access to these
advanced features by giving every actor a `gimmeYourQueue()` method.

The one problem I anticipate with GCD is that it doesn't scale well enough: server developers
in particular will want to instantiate hundreds of thousands of actors in their application, at
least one for every incoming network connection.  The programming model is substantially
harmed when you have to be afraid of creating too many actors: you have to start
aggregating logically distinct stuff together to reduce # queues, which leads to complexity
and loses some of the advantages of data isolation.

There are also questions about how actors are shut down.  The conceptually ideal model is
that actors are implicitly released when their reference count drops to zero and when the last
enqueued message is completed.  This will probably require some amount of runtime

Another potential concern is that GCD queues have unbounded depth: if you have a
producer/consumer situation, a fast producer can outpace the consumer and continuously
grow the queue of work.  It would be interesting to investigate options for
providing bounded queues that throttle or block the producer in this sort of situation.

### Alternative Design: Actors as classes

The design above is simple and self consistent, but may not be the right model, because
actors have a ton of conceptual overlap with classes.  Observe:

- Actors have reference semantics, just like classes.
- Actors form a graph, this means that we need to be able to have `weak`/`unowned`
  references to them.
- Subclassing of actors makes just as much sense as subclassing of classes, and would
  work the same way.
- Some people incorrectly think that Swift hates classes: this is an opportunity to restore
  some of their former glory.

However, actors are not *simple classes*: here are some differences:

- Only actors can have `actor` methods on them.  These methods have additional
  requirements put on them in order to provide the safety in the programming model we seek.
- An "actor class" deriving from a "non-actor base class" would have to be illegal, because
  the base class could escape self or escape local state references in an unsafe way.

One important pivot-point in discussion is whether subclassing of actors is desirable.  If so,
modeling them as a special kind of class would be a very nice simplifying assumption,
because a lot of complexity comes in with that (including all the initialization rules etc).  If not,
then defining them as a new kind of type is defensible, because they'd be very simple and
being a separate type would more easily explain the additional rules imposed on them.

Syntactically, if we decided to make them classes, it makes sense for this to be a modifier
on the class definition itself, since actorhood fundamentally alters the contract of the class,

actor class DataModel : SomeBaseActor { ... }

#### Examples

NOTE: This section should be expanded to show some of the more common design patterns
so people have more of an intuitive feel of how things work.  Suggestions are welcome!

## Part 3: Reliability through fault isolation

Swift has many aspects of its design that encourages programmer errors (aka software
bugs :-) to be caught at compile time: a static type system, optionals, encouraging covered
switch cases, etc.  However, some errors may only be caught at runtime, including things like
out-of-bound array accesses, integer overflows, and force-unwraps of nil.

As described in the [Swift Error Handling
Rationale](https://github.com/apple/swift/blob/master/docs/ErrorHandlingRationale.rst), there
is a tradeoff that must be struck: it doesn't make sense to force programmers to write logic
to handle every conceivable edge case: even discounting the boilerplate that would generate,
that logic is likely to itself be poorly tested and therefore full of bugs.  We must carefully
weigh and tradeoff complex issues in order to get a balanced design.  These tradeoffs are
what led to Swift's approach that does force programmers to think about and write code to
handle all potentially-nil pointer references, but not to have to think about integer overflow on
every arithmetic operation.  The new challenge is that integer overflow still must be
detected and handled somehow, and the programmer hasn't written any recovery code.

Swift handles these with a [fail fast](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fail-fast) philosophy: it is
preferable to detect and report a programmer error as quickly as possible, rather than
"blunder on" with the hope that the error won't matter.  Combined with rigorous testing (and
perhaps static analysis technology in the future), the goal is to make bugs shallow, and provide
good stack traces and other information when they occur.  This encourages them to be found
and fixed quickly early in the development cycle.  However, when the app ships, this
philosophy is only great if all the bugs were actually found, because an undetected problem
causes the app to suddenly terminate itself.

Sudden termination of a process is hugely problematic if it jeopardizes user data, or - in the
case of a server app - if there are hundreds of clients currently connected to the server at the
time.  While it is impossible in general to do perfect resolution of an arbitrary programmer
error, there is prior art for how handle common problems gracefully.  In the case of Cocoa,
for example, if an `NSException` propagates up to the top of the runloop, it is useful to try to
save any modified documents to a side location to avoid losing data.  This isn't guaranteed
to work in every case, but when it does, the
user is very happy that they haven't lost their progress.  Similarly, if a server crashes
handling one of its client's requests, a reasonable recovery scheme is to finish handling the
other established connections in the current process, but push off new connection requests
to a restarted instance of the server process.

The introduction of actors is a great opportunity to improve this situation, because actors
provide an interesting granularity level between the "whole process" and "an individual class"
where programmers think about the invariants they are maintaining.  Indeed, there is a bunch
of prior art in making reliable actor systems, and again, Erlang is one of the leaders.  We'll
start by sketching the basic model, then talk about a potential design approach.

### Actor Reliability Model

The basic concept here is that an actor that fails has violated its own local invariants, but that
the invariants in other actors still hold: this because we've defined away shared
mutable state.  This gives us the option of killing the individual actor that broke its invariants
instead of taking down the entire process.  Given the definition of the basic actor model
with unidirectional async message sends, it is possible to have the runtime just drop any new
messages sent to the actor, and the rest of the system can continue without even knowing
that the actor crashed.

While this is a simple approach, there are two problems:

- Actor methods that return a value could be in the process of being `await`ed, but if the
  actor has crashed those awaits will never complete.
- Dropping messages may itself cause deadlock because of higher-level communication
  invariants that are broken.  For example, consider this actor, which waits for 10 messages
  before passing on the message:
  actor Merge10Notifications {
    var counter : Int = 0
    let otherActor = ...  // set up by the init.
    actor func notify() {
      counter += 1
      if counter >= 10 {

If one of the 10 actors feeding notifications into this one crashes, then the program will wait
forever to get that 10th notification.  Because of this, someone designing a "reliable" actor
needs to think about more issues, and work slightly harder to achieve that reliability.

### Opting into reliability

Given that a reliable actor requires more thought than building a simple actor, it is reasonable
to look for opt-in models that provide [progressive disclosure of
complexity](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_disclosure).  The first thing
you need is a way to opt in.  As with actor syntax in general, there are two
broad options: first-class actor syntax or a class declaration modifier, i.e., one of:

  reliable actor Notifier { ... }
  reliable actor class Notifier { ... }

When one opts an actor into caring about reliability, a new requirement is imposed on all
`actor` methods that return a value: they are now required to be declared `throws` as well.
This forces clients of the actor to be prepared for a failure when/if the actor crashes.

Implicitly dropping messages is still a problem.  I'm not familiar with the approaches taken in
other systems, but I imagine two potential solutions:

1) Provide a standard library API to register failure handlers for actors, allowing higher level
   reasoning about how to process and respond to those failures.  An actor's `init()` could
   then use this API to register its failure handler the system.
2) Force *all* `actor` methods to throw, with the semantics that they only throw if the actor
   has crashed.  This forces clients of the reliable actor to handle a potential crash, and do so
   on the granularity of all messages sent to that actor.
Between the two, the first approach is more appealing to me, because it allows factoring
out the common failure logic in one place, rather than having every caller have to write (hard
to test) logic to handler the failure in a fine grained way.  For example, a document actor could
register a failure handler that attempts to save its data in a side location if it ever crashes.

That said, both approaches are feasible and should be explored in more detail.

*Alternate design*: An alternate approach is make all actors be "reliable" actors, by making
the additional constraints a simple part of the actor model.  This reduces the number of
choices a Swift programmer gets-to/has-to make.  If the async/await model ends up making
async imply throwing, then this is probably the right direction, because the `await` on a value
returning method would be implicitly a `try` marker as well.

### Reliability runtime model

Besides the high level semantic model that the programmer faces, there are also questions
about what the runtime model is.  When an actor crashes:

 - What state is its memory left in?
 - How well can the process clean up from the failure?
 - Do we attempt to release memory and other resources (like file descriptors) managed by that actor?

There are multiple possible designs, but I
advocate for a design where **no cleanup is performed**: if an actor crashes, the runtime
propagates that error to other actors and runs any recovery handlers (as described in the
previous section) but that it **should not** attempt further clean up the resources owned by
the actor.

There are a number of reasons for this, but the most important is that the failed actor just
violated its own consistency with whatever invalid operation it attempted to perform.  At this
point, it may have started a transaction but not finished it, or may be in any other sort of
inconsistent or undefined state.  Given the high likelihood for internal inconsistency, it is
probable that the high-level invariants of various classes aren't intact, which means it isn't
safe to run the `deinit`-ializers for the classes.

Beyond the semantic problems we face, there are also practical complexity and efficiency
issues at stake: it takes code and metadata to be able to unwind the actor's stack and release
active resources.  This code and metadata takes space in the application, and it also takes
time at compile time to generate it.  As such, the choice to provide a model that attempted
to recover from these
sorts of failures would mean burning significant code size and compile time for something
that isn't supposed to happen.

A final (and admittedly weak) reason for this approach is that a "too clean" cleanup runs the
risk that programmers will start treating fail-fast conditions as a soft error that
doesn't need to be handled with super-urgency.  We really do want these bugs to be found
and fixed in order to achieve the high reliability software systems that we seek.

## Part 4: Improving system architecture

As described in the motivation section, a single application process runs in the context of a
larger system: one that often involves multiple processes (e.g. an app and an XPC daemon)
communicating through [IPC](https://www.mikeash.com/pyblog/friday-qa-2009-01-16.html),
clients and servers communicating through networks, and
servers communicating with each other in "[the cloud](https://tr4.cbsistatic.com/hub/i/r/2016/11/29/9ea5f375-d0dd-4941-891b-f35e7580ae27/resize/770x/982bcf36f7a68242dce422f54f8d445c/49nocloud.jpg)" (using
JSON, protobufs, GRPC, etc...).  The points
of similarity across all of these are that they mostly consist of independent tasks that
communicate with each other by sending structured data using asynchronous message
sends, and that they cannot practically share mutable state.  This is starting to sound familiar.

That said, there are differences as well, and attempting to papering over them (as was done
in the older Objective-C "[Distributed
Objects](https://www.mikeash.com/pyblog/friday-qa-2009-02-20-the-good-and-bad-of-distributed-objects.html)" system)
leads to serious problems:

- Clients and servers are often written by different entities, which means that APIs must be
able to evolve independently.  Swift is already great at this.
- Networks introduce new failure modes that the original API almost certainly did not
  anticipate.  This is covered by "reliable actors" described above.
- Data in messages must be known-to-be `Codable`.
- Latency is much higher to remote systems, which can impact API design because
  too-fine-grained APIs perform poorly.

In order to align with the goals of Swift, we cannot sweep these issues under the rug: we
want to make the development process fast, but "getting something up and running" isn't the
goal: it really needs to work - even in the failure cases.

### Design sketch for interprocess and distributed compute

The actor model is a well-known solution in this space, and has been deployed
successfully in less-mainstream languages like
Bringing the ideas to Swift just requires that we make sure it fits cleanly into the existing
design, taking advantage of the characteristics of Swift and ensuring that it stays true to the
principles that guide it.

One of these principles is the concept of [progressive disclosure of
complexity](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_disclosure): a Swift developer
shouldn't have to worry about IPC or distributed compute if they don't care about it.  This
means that actors should opt-in through a new declaration modifier, aligning with the ultimate
design of the actor model itself, i.e., one of:

  distributed actor MyDistributedCache { ... }
  distributed actor class MyDistributedCache { ... }

Because it has done this, the actor is now subject to two additional requirements.

 - The actor must fulfill the requirements of a `reliable actor`, since a
   `distributed actor` is a further refinement of a reliable actor.  This means that all
   value returning `actor` methods must throw, for example.
 - Arguments and results of `actor` methods must conform to `Codable`.
 In addition, the author of the actor should consider whether the `actor` methods make
 sense in a distributed setting, given the increased latency that may be faced.  Using coarse
 grain APIs could be a significant performance win.
With this done, the developer can write their actor like normal: no change of language or
tools, no change of APIs, no massive new conceptual shifts.  This is true regardless of
whether you're talking to a cloud service endpoint over JSON or an optimized API using
protobufs and/or GRPC.  There are very few cracks that appear in the model, and the ones
that do have pretty obvious reasons: code that mutates global
state won't have that visible across the entire application architecture, files created in the file
system will work in an IPC context, but not a distributed one, etc.

The app developer can now put their actor in a package, share it between their app and their
service.  The major change in code is at the allocation site of `MyDistributedCache`, which
will now need to use an API to create the actor in another process instead of calling its
initializer directly.  If you want to start using a standard cloud API, you should be able to
import a package that vends that API as an actor interface, allowing you to completely
eliminate your code that slings around JSON blobs.

### New APIs required

The majority of the hard part of getting this to work is on the framework side, for example,
it would be interesting to start building things like:

- New APIs need to be built to start actors in interesting places: IPC contexts, cloud
  providers, etc.  These APIs should be consistent with each other.
- The underlying runtime needs to be built, which handles the serialization, handshaking,
  distributed reference counting of actors, etc.
- To optimize IPC communications with shared memory (mmaps), introduce a new protocol
  that refines `ValueSemantical`.  Heavy weight types can then opt into using it where it
  makes sense.
- A DSL that describes cloud APIs should be built (or an existing one adopted) to
  autogenerate the boilerplate necessary to vend an actor API for a cloud service.

In any case, there is a bunch of work to do here, and it will take multiple years to prototype,
build, iterate, and perfect it.  It will be a beautiful day when we get here though.

## Part 5: The crazy and brilliant future

Looking even farther down the road, there are even more opportunities to eliminate
accidental complexity by removing arbitrary differences in our language, tools, and APIs.
You can find these by looking for places with asynchronous communications patterns,
message sending and event-driven models, and places where shared mutable state doesn't
work well.

For example, GPU compute and DSP accelerators share all of these characteristics: the
CPU talks to the GPU through asynchronous commands (e.g. sent over DMA requests and
interrupts).  It could make sense to use a subset of Swift code (with new APIs for GPU
specific operations like texture fetches) for GPU compute tasks.

Another place to look is event-driven applications like interrupt handlers in embedded
systems, or asynchronous signals in Unix.  If a Swift script wants to sign up for notifications
about `SIGWINCH`, for example, it should be easy to do this by registering your actor and
implementing the right method.

Going further, a model like this begs for re-evaluation of some long-held debates in the software
community, such as the divide between microkernels and monolithic kernels.  Microkernels
are generally considered to be academically better (e.g. due to memory isolation of different
pieces, independent development of drivers from the kernel core, etc), but monolithic kernels
tend to be more pragmatic (e.g. more efficient).  The proposed model allows some really
interesting hybrid approaches, and allows subsystems to be moved "in process" of the main
kernel when efficiency is needed, or pushed "out of process" when they are untrusted or
when reliability is paramount, all without rewriting tons of code to achieve it.  Swift's focus on
stable APIs and API resilience also encourages and enables a split between the core kernel
and driver development.

In any case, there is a lot of opportunity to make the software world better, but it is also a
long path to carefully design and build each piece in a deliberate and intentional way.  Let's
take one step at a time, ensuring that each is as good as we can make it.

# Learning from other concurrency designs

When designing a concurrency system for Swift, we should look at the designs of other
languages to learn from them and ensure we have the best possible system.  There are
thousands of different programming languages, but most have very small communities, which
makes it hard to draw practical lessons out from those communities.  Here we look at a few
different systems, focusing on how their concurrency design works, ignoring syntactic and
other unrelated aspects of their design.

### Pony

Perhaps the most relevant active research language is the [Pony programming
language](https://www.ponylang.org).  It is actor-based and uses them along with other techniques
to provide a type-safe, memory-safe, deadlock-free, and datarace-free programming model.
The biggest
semantic difference between the Pony design and the Swift design is that Pony invests a
lot of design complexity into providing [capability-based
security](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability-based_security), which impose a high
learning curve.  In contrast, the model proposed here builds on Swift's mature system of
value semantics.  If transferring object graphs between actors (in a guaranteed memory safe
way) becomes important in the future, we can investigate expanding the [Swift Ownership
Model](https://github.com/apple/swift/blob/master/docs/OwnershipManifesto.md) to
cover more of these use-cases.

### Akka Actors in Scala

[Akka](http://akka.io) is a framework written in the [Scala programming
language](https://www.scala-lang.org), whose mission is to "Build powerful reactive,
concurrent, and distributed applications more easily".  The key to this is their well developed
[Akka actor system](http://doc.akka.io/docs/akka/current/scala/actors.html), which is the
principle abstraction that developers use to realize these goals (and it, in turn, was heavily
influenced by [Erlang](https://www.erlang.org).  One of the great things about
Akka is that it is mature and widely used by a lot of different organizations and people.  This
means we can learn from its design, from the design patterns the community has explored,
and from experience reports describing how well it works in practice.

The Akka design shares a lot of similarities to the design proposed here, because it is an
implementation of the same actor model.  It is built on futures, asynchronous message sends,
each actor is a unit of concurrency, there are well-known patterns for when and how actor
should communicate, and Akka supports easy distributed computation (which they call
"location transparency").

One difference between Akka and the model described here is that Akka is a library feature,
not a language feature.  This means that it can't provide additional type system and safety
features that the model we describe does.  For example, it is possible to accidentally [share
mutable state](https://manuel.bernhardt.io/2016/08/02/akka-anti-patterns-shared-mutable-state/)
which leads to bugs and erosion of the model.  Their message loops are also manually written
loops with pattern matching, instead of being automatically dispatched to `actor` methods -
this leads to somewhat more boilerplate.  Akka actor messages are untyped (marshalled
through an Any), which can lead to surprising bugs and difficulty reasoning about what the
API of an actor is.  Beyond that though, the two models are very comparable - and, no, this
is not an accident.

Keeping these differences in mind, we can learn a lot about how well the model works in
practice, by reading the numerous blog posts and other documents available online,
including, for example:
 - Lots of [Tutorials](http://danielwestheide.com/blog/2013/02/27/the-neophytes-guide-to-scala-part-14-the-actor-approach-to-concurrency.html)
- [Best practices and design patterns](https://www.safaribooksonline.com/library/view/applied-akka-patterns/9781491934876/ch04.html)
- Descriptions of the ease and benefits of [sharding servers written in Akka](http://michalplachta.com/2016/01/23/scalability-using-sharding-from-akka-cluster/)
- Success reports from lots of folks.

Further, it is likely that some members of the Swift community have encountered this
model, it would be great if they share their experiences, both positive and negative.

### Go

The [Go programming language](https://golang.org) supports a first-class approach to
writing concurrent programs based on goroutines and (bidirectional) channels. This model
has been very popular in the Go community and directly reflects many of the core values of
the Go language, including simplicity and preference for programming with low levels of
abstraction.  I have no evidence that this is the case, but I speculate that this model was
influenced by the domains that Go thrives in: the Go model of channels and communicating
independent goroutines almost directly reflects how servers communicate over network
connections (including core operations like `select`).

The proposed Swift design is higher abstraction than the Go model, but directly reflects one
of the most common patterns seen in Go: a goroutine whose body is an infinite loop over a
channel, decoding messages to the channel and acting on them.  Perhaps the most simple
example is this Go code (adapted from [this blog

func printer(c chan string) {
  for {
    msg := <- c

... is basically analogous to this proposed Swift code:

actor Printer {
  actor func print(message: String) {

The Swift design is more declarative than the Go code, but doesn't show many advantages
or disadvantages in something this small.  However, with more realistic examples, the
advantages of the higher-level declarative approach show benefit.  For example,
it is common for goroutines to listen on multiple channels, one for each message they
respond to.  This example (borrowed from [this blog
post](http://marcio.io/2015/07/handling-1-million-requests-per-minute-with-golang/)) is fairly

// Worker represents the worker that executes the job
type Worker struct {
  WorkerPool  chan chan Job
  JobChannel  chan Job
  quit        chan bool

func NewWorker(workerPool chan chan Job) Worker {
  return Worker{
    JobChannel: make(chan Job),
    quit:       make(chan bool)}

func (w Worker) Start() {
  go func() {
    for {
      select {
      case job := <-w.JobChannel:
        // ...
      case <-w.quit:
        // ...

// Stop signals the worker to stop listening for work requests.
func (w Worker) Stop() {
  go func() {
    w.quit <- true

This sort of thing is much more naturally expressed in our proposal model:

actor Worker {
  actor func do(job: Job) {
    // ...

  actor func stop() {
    // ...

That said, there are advantages and other tradeoffs to the Go model as well.  Go builds on
[CSP](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communicating_sequential_processes), which allows
more adhoc structures of communication.  For example, because
goroutines can listen to multiple channels it is occasionally easier to set up some (advanced)
communication patterns.  Synchronous messages to a channel can only be completely sent
if there is something listening and waiting for them, which can lead to performance
advantages (and some disadvantages).  Go doesn't
attempt to provide any sort of memory safety or data isolation, so goroutines have the
usual assortment of mutexes and other APIs to use, and are subject to standard bugs like
deadlocks and [data races](http://accelazh.github.io/go/Goroutine-Can-Race).  Races can
even break [memory safety](https://research.swtch.com/gorace).

I think that the most important thing the Swift community can learn from Go's concurrency
model is the huge benefit that comes from a highly scalable runtime model.  It is common to
have hundreds of thousands or even a million goroutines running around in a server.  The
ability to stop worrying about "running out of threads" is huge, and is one of the key decisions
that contributed to the rise of Go in the cloud.

The other lesson is that (while it is important to have a "best default" solution to reach for in
the world of concurrency) we shouldn't overly restrict the patterns that developers are allowed
to express.  This is a key reason why the async/await design is independent of futures or any
other abstraction.  A channel library in Swift will be as efficient as the one in Go, and if shared
mutable state and channels are the best solution to some specific problem, then we should
embrace that fact, not hide from it.  That said, I expect these cases to be very rare :-)

### Rust

Rust's approach to concurrency builds on the strengths of its ownership system to allow
library-based concurrency patterns to be built on top.  Rust supports message passing
(through channels), but also support locks and other typical abstractions for shared mutable
state.  Rust's approaches are well suited for systems programmers, which are the primary
target audience of Rust.

On the positive side, the Rust design provides a lot of flexibility, a wide range of different
concurrency primitives to choose from, and familiar abstractions for C++ programmers.

On the downside, their ownership model has a higher learning curve than the design
described here, their abstractions are typically very low level (great for systems programmers,
but not as helpful for higher levels), and they don't provide much guidance for programmers
about which abstractions to choose, how to structure an application, etc.  Rust also doesn't
provide an obvious model to scale into distributed applications.

That said, improving synchronization for Swift systems programmers will be a goal once the
basics of the [Swift Ownership
Model](https://github.com/apple/swift/blob/master/docs/OwnershipManifesto.md) come
together.  When that happens, it makes sense to take another look at the Rust abstractions
to see which would make sense to bring over to Swift.


public by vdt  278  0  3  0

resources for job applicants

resources for job applicants: job_applicant_resources.md

Here are some resources that I've used in my recent job search for full-stack web development positions. 
Feel free to share.

what questions to ask
* https://jvns.ca/blog/2013/12/30/questions-im-asking-in-interviews is a good starting point to come up with questions to ask potential employers

where to find tech companies
* https://www.crunchbase.com/#/home/index was THE search engine for finding tech companies based on criteria
* www.hired.com (where I ultimately found the place where I'm working at now, i love the transparent salary data)
* https://angel.co for early-stage tech startups

statistics on tech companies
* hired.com's annual reporto on market rate salaries: 
* ALL of hired.com's blog posts are well-researched, well-written

algorithms interview prep
* https://www.interviewcake.com/ InterviewCake interactive in-browser questions
* http://blog.gainlo.co/ has nice blog posts going in-depth on specific algorithms topics

random apps
* MixMax: a gmail inbox plugin. Lots of features. The most useful feature for me was calendar scheduling for interviews.
* any reminder app to alert me that I have N minutes before my next interview meeting and amount of traffic to get there


public by vdt  232  0  3  0

Zipline example

Zipline example: zipline_example.conf
source: {
  type: hive
        id_listing as listing
      , dim_city as city
      , dim_country as country
      , dim_is_active as is_active
      , CONCAT(ds, ' 23:59:59.999') as ts
      ds BETWEEN '{{ start_date }}' AND '{{ end_date }}'
  dependencies: [core_data.dim_listings]
  is_snapshot: true
  start_date: 2010-01-01
features: {
  city: "City in which the listing is located."
  country: "Country in which the listing is located."
  is_active: "If the listing is active as of the date partition."