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    public by rthurber  646  3  3  0 gistfile1.txt
    ack -l $CURRENT_NAME | xargs sed -i '' -e "s/$CURRENT_NAME/$NEW_NAME/g"
    ack -l $CURRENT_OTP | xargs sed -i '' -e "s/$CURRENT_OTP/$NEW_OTP/g"

    public by rthurber  430  0  3  0 gistfile1.txt
    ack -l $CURRENT_NAME | xargs sed -i '' -e "s/$CURRENT_NAME/$NEW_NAME/g"
    ack -l $CURRENT_OTP | xargs sed -i '' -e "s/$CURRENT_OTP/$NEW_OTP/g"

    public by yourfriendcaspian  486  0  3  0

    Install Mysql with Python and Django Debian/Derivatives - Translated

    Install Mysql with Python and Django Debian/Derivatives - Translated: mysql_python_on_debian.txt
    #Install Mysql with Python and Django Debian/Derivatives 
    #To install we need to have some dependencies in the system for now we will show on
    #Debian and Derivatives.
    #But first install updates and MySQL
    $ sudo apt-get update
    $ sudo apt-get upgrade
    # ** NOTE: ** 
    #Each System has its commands for updating, if your machine is not derived from Debian ** look for them **
    ##Install MySQL
    $ sudo apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client
    Passwd for 'root' user: <password>
    #At the end we execute this command to give more security to our BD
    $ mysql_secure_installation
    #Check carefully the changes that will be made, the first question is the passwd for root,
    #IF you want to keep or change it, and continue with other security questions.
    ##Create a database and a user for the DB
    #Now we will create the DB that will be connected to DJango and a User with Passwd to access it.
    #There are two ways to do this:
    echo "CREATE DATABASE <DATABASENAME>;" | mysql -u root -p
    echo "CREATE USER '<DATABASEUSER>'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '<PASSWORD>';" | mysql -u root -p
    echo "GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON <DATABASENAME>.* TO '<DATABASEUSER>'@'localhost';" | mysql -u root -p
    echo "FLUSH PRIVILEGES;" | mysql -u root -p
    #So they should put their passwd of mysql in each line or
    #they can also do it of the following way
    $ mysql -u root -p
    #Enter your passwd and then do the following.
    #We Check Dependencies
    #There are only a few dependencies but you have to be sure
    $ sudo apt-get install libmysqlclient-dev python-dev
    #So far it's all just proceed to install pip in our virtual environment or globally
    $ sudo -H pip install mysql-python
    #As you can see now you can create DB and Users for each Django Project

    public by yourfriendcaspian  426  1  3  0

    Provision Ubuntu 16.04 Server

    Provision Ubuntu 16.04 Server: ubuntu_server_provision.txt
    - Postgres
    sudo apt install postgresql
    move databases
    - Samba File Server
    - Elastic Search
    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java
    sudo apt install oracle-java8-installer
    sudo dpkg -i elasticsearch-5.4.0.deb 
    - Logstash
    wget -qO - | sudo apt-key add -
    echo "deb stable main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/elastic-5.x.list
    sudo apt install logstash=1:5.4.0-1 
    sudo systemctl stop logstash
    sudo systemctl start logstash
    sudo systemctl enable logstash
    - Kibana
    wget -qO - | sudo apt-key add -
    sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https
    echo "deb stable main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/elastic-5.x.list
    sudo systemctl enable kibana
    - Beats
    wget -qO - | sudo apt-key add -
    echo "deb stable main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/elastic-5.x.list
    sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install filebeat
    # sudo update-rc.d filebeat defaults 95 10
    - Mongo
    sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp:// --recv 0C49F3730359A14518585931BC711F9BA15703C6
    echo "deb [ arch=amd64,arm64 ] xenial/mongodb-org/3.4 multiverse" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-3.4.list
    sudo apt update
    apt cache madison mongodb-org
    sudo apt install mongodb-org=3.4.4
    move databases
    - Neo4j
    sudo wget
    wget -O - | apt-key add -
    echo 'deb stable/' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/neo4j.list
    sudo apt update
    apt-cache madison neo4j | head
    sudo apt install neo4j=3.2.0
    ## nginx 
    apt-cache madison nginx 
         nginx | 1.10.0-0ubuntu0.16.04.4 | xenial-updates/main amd64 Packages
         nginx | 1.10.0-0ubuntu0.16.04.4 | xenial-updates/main i386 Packages
         nginx | 1.10.0-0ubuntu0.16.04.4 | xenial-security/main amd64 Packages
         nginx | 1.10.0-0ubuntu0.16.04.4 | xenial-security/main i386 Packages
         nginx | 1.9.15-0ubuntu1 | xenial/main amd64 Packages
         nginx | 1.9.15-0ubuntu1 | xenial/main i386 Packages
    apt install nginx=1.10.0-0ubuntu0.16.04.4
    - Docker
    ahmed@ubuntuserver:~$ apt-cache madison docker-ce
     docker-ce | 17.03.1~ce-0~ubuntu-xenial | xenial/stable amd64 Packages
     docker-ce | 17.03.0~ce-0~ubuntu-xenial | xenial/stable amd64 Packages
    sudo apt install docker-ce=17.03.1~ce-0~ubuntu-xenial
    - Docker Machine Host
    docker-machine create --driver none --url=tcp:// default
    docker-machine regenerate-certs default
    - KVM
    sudo apt-get install qemu-kvm libvirt-bin ubuntu-vm-builder bridge-utils
    sudo apt-get install nmap
    sudo apt install python-setuptools
    sudo apt install python-pip
    - Influx Time Series DB
    docker pull telegraf:1.3-alpine
    sudo dpkg -i telegraf_1.3.1-1_amd64.deb
    docker pull influxdb:1.2-alpine
    sudo dpkg -i influxdb_1.2.4_amd64.deb
    docker pull
    sudo dpkg -i chronograf_1.3.1.0_amd64.deb
    docker pull kapacitor:1.3.1-alpine
    sudo dpkg -i kapacitor_1.3.1_amd64.deb

    public by yourfriendcaspian  465  6  4  0

    Random Linux program install commands

    Random Linux program install commands: command_line_app_installs.txt
    # Install Postgres 9.4-pgdg main
    wget --quiet -O - | sudo apt-key add -
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install postgresql-9.4
    # Install redis 
    curl -O
    tar xzf redis-3.2.9.tar.gz
    rm redis-3.2.9.tar.gz
    make -C redis-3.2.9
    # Install elasticsearch
    curl -L -O
    tar -xvf elasticsearch-5.4.1.tar.gz
    # Install Enpass
    #echo "Download Enpass";
    #curl -O
    #chmod +x Enpass_Installer_5.5.3
    #rm Enpass_Installer_5.5.3
    # Install oh-my-zsh
    sudo apt-get install zsh
    sh -c "$(curl -fsSL"
    # Install tmux
    sudo apt-get install tmux
    # Install Chrome
    #sudo dpkg -i google-chrome*.deb
    #Install dotfiles
    #\curl | bash
    #Install ELEMENTARY tweaks
    #sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mpstark/elementary-tweaks-daily
    #sudo apt-get update
    #sudo apt-get install elementary-tweaks			

    public by yourfriendcaspian  339  0  4  0

    Calculate MySQL Database Size

    Calculate MySQL Database Size: calc_mysql_db_size.txt
    SELECT table_schema "Database_Name", SUM( data_length + index_length) / 1024 / 1024 
    "Database_Size_in_MB" FROM information_schema.TABLES GROUP BY table_schema;

    public by yourfriendcaspian  308  0  3  0

    SSH - SSL Cheatsheet

    SSH - SSL Cheatsheet: ssl-ssh-cheatsheet.txt
    1. Convert PEM into pub SSH key file:
    ssh-keygen -e -f amazon-ec2-key.pem >>
    2. Generate a PEM from a SSH key: 
    openssl rsa -in my_tunneler -outform pem > my_tunneler.pem

    public by YourFriendCaspian  258  0  3  0

    Asus Laptop Extras

    Asus Laptop Extras: asus-laptop.txt
    Asus Laptop Extras
    Version 0.1
    August 6, 2009
    Corentin Chary <>
     This driver provides support for extra features of ACPI-compatible ASUS laptops.
     It may also support some MEDION, JVC or VICTOR laptops (such as MEDION 9675 or
     VICTOR XP7210 for example). It makes all the extra buttons generate input
     events (like keyboards).
     On some models adds support for changing the display brightness and output,
     switching the LCD backlight on and off, and most importantly, allows you to
     blink those fancy LEDs intended for reporting mail and wireless status.
    This driver supercedes the old asus_acpi driver.
      Kernel 2.6.X sources, configured for your computer, with ACPI support.
      You also need CONFIG_INPUT and CONFIG_ACPI.
     The features currently supported are the following (see below for
     detailed description):
     - Fn key combinations
     - Bluetooth enable and disable
     - Wlan enable and disable
     - GPS enable and disable
     - Video output switching
     - Ambient Light Sensor on and off
     - LED control
     - LED Display control
     - LCD brightness control
     - LCD on and off
     A compatibility table by model and feature is maintained on the web
      Try "modprobe asus-laptop". Check your dmesg (simply type dmesg). You should
      see some lines like this :
          Asus Laptop Extras version 0.42
            L2D model detected.
      If it is not the output you have on your laptop, send it (and the laptop's
      DSDT) to me.
      That's all, now, all the events generated by the hotkeys of your laptop
      should be reported via netlink events. You can check with
      "acpi_genl monitor" (part of the acpica project).
      Hotkeys are also reported as input keys (like keyboards) you can check
      which key are supported using "xev" under X11.
      You can get information on the version of your DSDT table by reading the
      /sys/devices/platform/asus-laptop/infos entry. If you have a question or a
      bug report to do, please include the output of this entry.
      You can modify LEDs be echoing values to /sys/class/leds/asus::*/brightness :
        echo 1 >  /sys/class/leds/asus::mail/brightness
      will switch the mail LED on.
      You can also know if they are on/off by reading their content and use
      kernel triggers like ide-disk or heartbeat.
      You can control lcd backlight power and brightness with
      /sys/class/backlight/asus-laptop/. Brightness Values are between 0 and 15.
    Wireless devices
      You can turn the internal Bluetooth adapter on/off with the bluetooth entry
      (only on models with Bluetooth). This usually controls the associated LED.
      Same for Wlan adapter.
    Display switching
      Note: the display switching code is currently considered EXPERIMENTAL.
      Switching works for the following models:
        W1000N (albeit with some glitches)
      Switching doesn't work for the following:
        L2X00D (locks the laptop under certain conditions)
      To switch the displays, echo values from 0 to 15 to
      /sys/devices/platform/asus-laptop/display. The significance of those values
      is as follows:
      | Bin   | Val | DVI | TV  | CRT | LCD |
      + 0000  +   0 +     +     +     +     +
      + 0001  +   1 +     +     +     +  X  +
      + 0010  +   2 +     +     +  X  +     +
      + 0011  +   3 +     +     +  X  +  X  +
      + 0100  +   4 +     +  X  +     +     +
      + 0101  +   5 +     +  X  +     + X   +
      + 0110  +   6 +     +  X  +  X  +     +
      + 0111  +   7 +     +  X  +  X  +  X  +
      + 1000  +   8 +  X  +     +     +     +
      + 1001  +   9 +  X  +     +     +  X  +
      + 1010  +  10 +  X  +     +  X  +     +
      + 1011  +  11 +  X  +     +  X  +  X  +
      + 1100  +  12 +  X  +  X  +     +     +
      + 1101  +  13 +  X  +  X  +     +  X  +
      + 1110  +  14 +  X  +  X  +  X  +     +
      + 1111  +  15 +  X  +  X  +  X  +  X  +
      In most cases, the appropriate displays must be plugged in for the above
      combinations to work. TV-Out may need to be initialized at boot time.
      1) Check whether the Fn+F8 key:
         a) does not lock the laptop (try a boot with noapic / nolapic if it does)
         b) generates events (0x6n, where n is the value corresponding to the
            configuration above)
         c) actually works
         Record the disp value at every configuration.
      2) Echo values from 0 to 15 to /sys/devices/platform/asus-laptop/display.
         Record its value, note any change. If nothing changes, try a broader range,
         up to 65535.
      3) Send ANY output (both positive and negative reports are needed, unless your
         machine is already listed above) to the acpi4asus-user mailing list.
      Note: on some machines (e.g. L3C), after the module has been loaded, only 0x6n
      events are generated and no actual switching occurs. In such a case, a line
        echo $((10#$arg-60)) > /sys/devices/platform/asus-laptop/display
      will usually do the trick ($arg is the 0000006n-like event passed to acpid).
      Note: there is currently no reliable way to read display status on xxN
      (Centrino) models.
    LED display
      Some models like the W1N have a LED display that can be used to display
      several items of information.
      LED display works for the following models:
      To control the LED display, use the following :
        echo 0x0T000DDD > /sys/devices/platform/asus-laptop/
      where T control the 3 letters display, and DDD the 3 digits display,
      according to the tables below.
             DDD (digits)
             000 to 999 = display digits
             AAA        = ---
             BBB to FFF = turn-off
             T  (type)
             0 = off
             1 = dvd
             2 = vcd
             3 = mp3
             4 = cd
             5 = tv
             6 = cpu
             7 = vol
      For example "echo 0x01000001 >/sys/devices/platform/asus-laptop/ledd"
      would display "DVD001".
    Driver options:
     Options can be passed to the asus-laptop driver using the standard
     module argument syntax (<param>=<value> when passing the option to the
     module or asus-laptop.<param>=<value> on the kernel boot line when
     asus-laptop is statically linked into the kernel).
    	     wapf: WAPF defines the behavior of the Fn+Fx wlan key
    		   The significance of values is yet to be found, but
    		   most of the time:
    		   - 0x0 should do nothing
    		   - 0x1 should allow to control the device with Fn+Fx key.
    		   - 0x4 should send an ACPI event (0x88) while pressing the Fn+Fx key
    		   - 0x5 like 0x1 or 0x4
     The default value is 0x1.
    Unsupported models
     These models will never be supported by this module, as they use a completely
     different mechanism to handle LEDs and extra stuff (meaning we have no clue
     how it works):
     - ASUS A1300 (A1B), A1370D
     - ASUS L7300G
     - ASUS L8400
    Patches, Errors, Questions:
     I appreciate any success or failure
     reports, especially if they add to or correct the compatibility table.
     Please include the following information in your report:
     - Asus model name
     - a copy of your ACPI tables, using the "acpidump" utility
     - a copy of /sys/devices/platform/asus-laptop/infos
     - which driver features work and which don't
     - the observed behavior of non-working features
     Any other comments or patches are also more than welcome.


    public by YourFriendCaspian  237  0  3  0

    ThinkPad ACPI Extras Driver

    ThinkPad ACPI Extras Driver: thinkpad-acpi.txt
    		     ThinkPad ACPI Extras Driver
                                Version 0.25
                            October 16th,  2013
                   Borislav Deianov <>
                 Henrique de Moraes Holschuh <>
    This is a Linux driver for the IBM and Lenovo ThinkPad laptops. It
    supports various features of these laptops which are accessible
    through the ACPI and ACPI EC framework, but not otherwise fully
    supported by the generic Linux ACPI drivers.
    This driver used to be named ibm-acpi until kernel 2.6.21 and release
    0.13-20070314.  It used to be in the drivers/acpi tree, but it was
    moved to the drivers/misc tree and renamed to thinkpad-acpi for kernel
    2.6.22, and release 0.14.  It was moved to drivers/platform/x86 for
    kernel 2.6.29 and release 0.22.
    The driver is named "thinkpad-acpi".  In some places, like module
    names and log messages, "thinkpad_acpi" is used because of userspace
    "tpacpi" is used as a shorthand where "thinkpad-acpi" would be too
    long due to length limitations on some Linux kernel versions.
    The features currently supported are the following (see below for
    detailed description):
    	- Fn key combinations
    	- Bluetooth enable and disable
    	- video output switching, expansion control
    	- ThinkLight on and off
    	- CMOS/UCMS control
    	- LED control
    	- ACPI sounds
    	- temperature sensors
    	- Experimental: embedded controller register dump
    	- LCD brightness control
    	- Volume control
    	- Fan control and monitoring: fan speed, fan enable/disable
    	- WAN enable and disable
    	- UWB enable and disable
    A compatibility table by model and feature is maintained on the web
    site, I appreciate any success or failure
    reports, especially if they add to or correct the compatibility table.
    Please include the following information in your report:
    	- ThinkPad model name
    	- a copy of your ACPI tables, using the "acpidump" utility
    	- a copy of the output of dmidecode, with serial numbers
    	  and UUIDs masked off
    	- which driver features work and which don't
    	- the observed behavior of non-working features
    Any other comments or patches are also more than welcome.
    If you are compiling this driver as included in the Linux kernel
    sources, look for the CONFIG_THINKPAD_ACPI Kconfig option.
    It is located on the menu path: "Device Drivers" -> "X86 Platform
    Specific Device Drivers" -> "ThinkPad ACPI Laptop Extras".
    The driver exports two different interfaces to userspace, which can be
    used to access the features it provides.  One is a legacy procfs-based
    interface, which will be removed at some time in the future.  The other
    is a new sysfs-based interface which is not complete yet.
    The procfs interface creates the /proc/acpi/ibm directory.  There is a
    file under that directory for each feature it supports.  The procfs
    interface is mostly frozen, and will change very little if at all: it
    will not be extended to add any new functionality in the driver, instead
    all new functionality will be implemented on the sysfs interface.
    The sysfs interface tries to blend in the generic Linux sysfs subsystems
    and classes as much as possible.  Since some of these subsystems are not
    yet ready or stabilized, it is expected that this interface will change,
    and any and all userspace programs must deal with it.
    Notes about the sysfs interface:
    Unlike what was done with the procfs interface, correctness when talking
    to the sysfs interfaces will be enforced, as will correctness in the
    thinkpad-acpi's implementation of sysfs interfaces.
    Also, any bugs in the thinkpad-acpi sysfs driver code or in the
    thinkpad-acpi's implementation of the sysfs interfaces will be fixed for
    maximum correctness, even if that means changing an interface in
    non-compatible ways.  As these interfaces mature both in the kernel and
    in thinkpad-acpi, such changes should become quite rare.
    Applications interfacing to the thinkpad-acpi sysfs interfaces must
    follow all sysfs guidelines and correctly process all errors (the sysfs
    interface makes extensive use of errors).  File descriptors and open /
    close operations to the sysfs inodes must also be properly implemented.
    The version of thinkpad-acpi's sysfs interface is exported by the driver
    as a driver attribute (see below).
    Sysfs driver attributes are on the driver's sysfs attribute space,
    for 2.6.23+ this is /sys/bus/platform/drivers/thinkpad_acpi/ and
    Sysfs device attributes are on the thinkpad_acpi device sysfs attribute
    space, for 2.6.23+ this is /sys/devices/platform/thinkpad_acpi/.
    Sysfs device attributes for the sensors and fan are on the
    thinkpad_hwmon device's sysfs attribute space, but you should locate it
    looking for a hwmon device with the name attribute of "thinkpad", or
    better yet, through libsensors.
    Driver version
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/driver
    sysfs driver attribute: version
    The driver name and version. No commands can be written to this file.
    Sysfs interface version
    sysfs driver attribute: interface_version
    Version of the thinkpad-acpi sysfs interface, as an unsigned long
    (output in hex format: 0xAAAABBCC), where:
    	AAAA - major revision
    	BB - minor revision
    	CC - bugfix revision
    The sysfs interface version changelog for the driver can be found at the
    end of this document.  Changes to the sysfs interface done by the kernel
    subsystems are not documented here, nor are they tracked by this
    Changes to the thinkpad-acpi sysfs interface are only considered
    non-experimental when they are submitted to Linux mainline, at which
    point the changes in this interface are documented and interface_version
    may be updated.  If you are using any thinkpad-acpi features not yet
    sent to mainline for merging, you do so on your own risk: these features
    may disappear, or be implemented in a different and incompatible way by
    the time they are merged in Linux mainline.
    Changes that are backwards-compatible by nature (e.g. the addition of
    attributes that do not change the way the other attributes work) do not
    always warrant an update of interface_version.  Therefore, one must
    expect that an attribute might not be there, and deal with it properly
    (an attribute not being there *is* a valid way to make it clear that a
    feature is not available in sysfs).
    Hot keys
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/hotkey
    sysfs device attribute: hotkey_*
    In a ThinkPad, the ACPI HKEY handler is responsible for communicating
    some important events and also keyboard hot key presses to the operating
    system.  Enabling the hotkey functionality of thinkpad-acpi signals the
    firmware that such a driver is present, and modifies how the ThinkPad
    firmware will behave in many situations.
    The driver enables the HKEY ("hot key") event reporting automatically
    when loaded, and disables it when it is removed.
    The driver will report HKEY events in the following format:
    	ibm/hotkey HKEY 00000080 0000xxxx
    Some of these events refer to hot key presses, but not all of them.
    The driver will generate events over the input layer for hot keys and
    radio switches, and over the ACPI netlink layer for other events.  The
    input layer support accepts the standard IOCTLs to remap the keycodes
    assigned to each hot key.
    The hot key bit mask allows some control over which hot keys generate
    events.  If a key is "masked" (bit set to 0 in the mask), the firmware
    will handle it.  If it is "unmasked", it signals the firmware that
    thinkpad-acpi would prefer to handle it, if the firmware would be so
    kind to allow it (and it often doesn't!).
    Not all bits in the mask can be modified.  Not all bits that can be
    modified do anything.  Not all hot keys can be individually controlled
    by the mask.  Some models do not support the mask at all.  The behaviour
    of the mask is, therefore, highly dependent on the ThinkPad model.
    The driver will filter out any unmasked hotkeys, so even if the firmware
    doesn't allow disabling an specific hotkey, the driver will not report
    events for unmasked hotkeys.
    Note that unmasking some keys prevents their default behavior.  For
    example, if Fn+F5 is unmasked, that key will no longer enable/disable
    Bluetooth by itself in firmware.
    Note also that not all Fn key combinations are supported through ACPI
    depending on the ThinkPad model and firmware version.  On those
    ThinkPads, it is still possible to support some extra hotkeys by
    polling the "CMOS NVRAM" at least 10 times per second.  The driver
    attempts to enables this functionality automatically when required.
    procfs notes:
    The following commands can be written to the /proc/acpi/ibm/hotkey file:
    	echo 0xffffffff > /proc/acpi/ibm/hotkey -- enable all hot keys
    	echo 0 > /proc/acpi/ibm/hotkey -- disable all possible hot keys
    	... any other 8-hex-digit mask ...
    	echo reset > /proc/acpi/ibm/hotkey -- restore the recommended mask
    The following commands have been deprecated and will cause the kernel
    to log a warning:
    	echo enable > /proc/acpi/ibm/hotkey -- does nothing
    	echo disable > /proc/acpi/ibm/hotkey -- returns an error
    The procfs interface does not support NVRAM polling control.  So as to
    maintain maximum bug-to-bug compatibility, it does not report any masks,
    nor does it allow one to manipulate the hot key mask when the firmware
    does not support masks at all, even if NVRAM polling is in use.
    sysfs notes:
    		Returns 0.
    		Returns the hot keys mask when thinkpad-acpi was loaded.
    		Upon module unload, the hot keys mask will be restored
    		to this value.   This is always 0x80c, because those are
    		the hotkeys that were supported by ancient firmware
    		without mask support.
    		0: returns -EPERM
    		1: does nothing
    		bit mask to enable reporting (and depending on
    		the firmware, ACPI event generation) for each hot key
    		(see above).  Returns the current status of the hot keys
    		mask, and allows one to modify it.
    		bit mask that should enable event reporting for all
    		supported hot keys, when echoed to hotkey_mask above.
    		Unless you know which events need to be handled
    		passively (because the firmware *will* handle them
    		anyway), do *not* use hotkey_all_mask.  Use
    		hotkey_recommended_mask, instead. You have been warned.
    		bit mask that should enable event reporting for all
    		supported hot keys, except those which are always
    		handled by the firmware anyway.  Echo it to
    		hotkey_mask above, to use.  This is the default mask
    		used by the driver.
    		bit mask that selects which hot keys will the driver
    		poll the NVRAM for.  This is auto-detected by the driver
    		based on the capabilities reported by the ACPI firmware,
    		but it can be overridden at runtime.
    		Hot keys whose bits are set in hotkey_source_mask are
    		polled for in NVRAM, and reported as hotkey events if
    		enabled in hotkey_mask.  Only a few hot keys are
    		available through CMOS NVRAM polling.
    		Warning: when in NVRAM mode, the volume up/down/mute
    		keys are synthesized according to changes in the mixer,
    		which uses a single volume up or volume down hotkey
    		press to unmute, as per the ThinkPad volume mixer user
    		interface.  When in ACPI event mode, volume up/down/mute
    		events are reported by the firmware and can behave
    		differently (and that behaviour changes with firmware
    		version -- not just with firmware models -- as well as
    		OSI(Linux) state).
    		frequency in Hz for hot key polling. It must be between
    		0 and 25 Hz.  Polling is only carried out when strictly
    		Setting hotkey_poll_freq to zero disables polling, and
    		will cause hot key presses that require NVRAM polling
    		to never be reported.
    		Setting hotkey_poll_freq too low may cause repeated
    		pressings of the same hot key to be misreported as a
    		single key press, or to not even be detected at all.
    		The recommended polling frequency is 10Hz.
    		If the ThinkPad has a hardware radio switch, this
    		attribute will read 0 if the switch is in the "radios
    		disabled" position, and 1 if the switch is in the
    		"radios enabled" position.
    		This attribute has poll()/select() support.
    		If the ThinkPad has tablet capabilities, this attribute
    		will read 0 if the ThinkPad is in normal mode, and
    		1 if the ThinkPad is in tablet mode.
    		This attribute has poll()/select() support.
    		Set to 1 if the system is waking up because the user
    		requested a bay ejection.  Set to 2 if the system is
    		waking up because the user requested the system to
    		undock.  Set to zero for normal wake-ups or wake-ups
    		due to unknown reasons.
    		This attribute has poll()/select() support.
    		Set to 1 if the system was waken up because of an
    		undock or bay ejection request, and that request
    		was successfully completed.  At this point, it might
    		be useful to send the system back to sleep, at the
    		user's choice.  Refer to HKEY events 0x4003 and
    		0x3003, below.
    		This attribute has poll()/select() support.
    input layer notes:
    A Hot key is mapped to a single input layer EV_KEY event, possibly
    followed by an EV_MSC MSC_SCAN event that shall contain that key's scan
    code.  An EV_SYN event will always be generated to mark the end of the
    event block.
    Do not use the EV_MSC MSC_SCAN events to process keys.  They are to be
    used as a helper to remap keys, only.  They are particularly useful when
    remapping KEY_UNKNOWN keys.
    The events are available in an input device, with the following id:
    	Bus:		BUS_HOST
    	vendor:		0x1014 (PCI_VENDOR_ID_IBM)  or
    			0x17aa (PCI_VENDOR_ID_LENOVO)
    	product:	0x5054 ("TP")
    	version:	0x4101
    The version will have its LSB incremented if the keymap changes in a
    backwards-compatible way.  The MSB shall always be 0x41 for this input
    device.  If the MSB is not 0x41, do not use the device as described in
    this section, as it is either something else (e.g. another input device
    exported by a thinkpad driver, such as HDAPS) or its functionality has
    been changed in a non-backwards compatible way.
    Adding other event types for other functionalities shall be considered a
    backwards-compatible change for this input device.
    Thinkpad-acpi Hot Key event map (version 0x4101):
    ACPI	Scan
    event	code	Key		Notes
    0x1001	0x00	FN+F1		-
    0x1002	0x01	FN+F2		IBM: battery (rare)
    				Lenovo: Screen lock
    0x1003	0x02	FN+F3		Many IBM models always report
    				this hot key, even with hot keys
    				disabled or with Fn+F3 masked
    				IBM: screen lock, often turns
    				off the ThinkLight as side-effect
    				Lenovo: battery
    0x1004	0x03	FN+F4		Sleep button (ACPI sleep button
    				semantics, i.e. sleep-to-RAM).
    				It always generates some kind
    				of event, either the hot key
    				event or an ACPI sleep button
    				event. The firmware may
    				refuse to generate further FN+F4
    				key presses until a S3 or S4 ACPI
    				sleep cycle is performed or some
    				time passes.
    0x1005	0x04	FN+F5		Radio.  Enables/disables
    				the internal Bluetooth hardware
    				and W-WAN card if left in control
    				of the firmware.  Does not affect
    				the WLAN card.
    				Should be used to turn on/off all
    				radios (Bluetooth+W-WAN+WLAN),
    0x1006	0x05	FN+F6		-
    0x1007	0x06	FN+F7		Video output cycle.
    				Do you feel lucky today?
    0x1008	0x07	FN+F8		IBM: toggle screen expand
    				Lenovo: configure UltraNav,
    				or toggle screen expand
    0x1009	0x08	FN+F9		-
    	..	..		..
    0x100B	0x0A	FN+F11		-
    0x100C	0x0B	FN+F12		Sleep to disk.  You are always
    				supposed to handle it yourself,
    				either through the ACPI event,
    				or through a hotkey event.
    				The firmware may refuse to
    				generate further FN+F12 key
    				press events until a S3 or S4
    				ACPI sleep cycle is performed,
    				or some time passes.
    0x100D	0x0C	FN+BACKSPACE	-
    0x100E	0x0D	FN+INSERT	-
    0x100F	0x0E	FN+DELETE	-
    0x1010	0x0F	FN+HOME		Brightness up.  This key is
    				always handled by the firmware
    				in IBM ThinkPads, even when
    				unmasked.  Just leave it alone.
    				For Lenovo ThinkPads with a new
    				BIOS, it has to be handled either
    				by the ACPI OSI, or by userspace.
    				The driver does the right thing,
    				never mess with this.
    0x1011	0x10	FN+END		Brightness down.  See brightness
    				up for details.
    0x1012	0x11	FN+PGUP		ThinkLight toggle.  This key is
    				always handled by the firmware,
    				even when unmasked.
    0x1013	0x12	FN+PGDOWN	-
    0x1014	0x13	FN+SPACE	Zoom key
    0x1015	0x14	VOLUME UP	Internal mixer volume up. This
    				key is always handled by the
    				firmware, even when unmasked.
    				NOTE: Lenovo seems to be changing
    0x1016	0x15	VOLUME DOWN	Internal mixer volume up. This
    				key is always handled by the
    				firmware, even when unmasked.
    				NOTE: Lenovo seems to be changing
    0x1017	0x16	MUTE		Mute internal mixer. This
    				key is always handled by the
    				firmware, even when unmasked.
    0x1018	0x17	THINKPAD	ThinkPad/Access IBM/Lenovo key
    0x1019	0x18	unknown
    ..	..	..
    0x1020	0x1F	unknown
    The ThinkPad firmware does not allow one to differentiate when most hot
    keys are pressed or released (either that, or we don't know how to, yet).
    For these keys, the driver generates a set of events for a key press and
    immediately issues the same set of events for a key release.  It is
    unknown by the driver if the ThinkPad firmware triggered these events on
    hot key press or release, but the firmware will do it for either one, not
    If a key is mapped to KEY_RESERVED, it generates no input events at all.
    If a key is mapped to KEY_UNKNOWN, it generates an input event that
    includes an scan code.  If a key is mapped to anything else, it will
    generate input device EV_KEY events.
    In addition to the EV_KEY events, thinkpad-acpi may also issue EV_SW
    events for switches:
    SW_RFKILL_ALL	T60 and later hardware rfkill rocker switch
    SW_TABLET_MODE	Tablet ThinkPads HKEY events 0x5009 and 0x500A
    Non hotkey ACPI HKEY event map:
    Events that are never propagated by the driver:
    0x2304		System is waking up from suspend to undock
    0x2305		System is waking up from suspend to eject bay
    0x2404		System is waking up from hibernation to undock
    0x2405		System is waking up from hibernation to eject bay
    0x5001		Lid closed
    0x5002		Lid opened
    0x5009		Tablet swivel: switched to tablet mode
    0x500A		Tablet swivel: switched to normal mode
    0x5010		Brightness level changed/control event
    0x6000		KEYBOARD: Numlock key pressed
    0x6005		KEYBOARD: Fn key pressed (TO BE VERIFIED)
    0x7000		Radio Switch may have changed state
    Events that are propagated by the driver to userspace:
    0x2313		ALARM: System is waking up from suspend because
    		the battery is nearly empty
    0x2413		ALARM: System is waking up from hibernation because
    		the battery is nearly empty
    0x3003		Bay ejection (see 0x2x05) complete, can sleep again
    0x3006		Bay hotplug request (hint to power up SATA link when
    		the optical drive tray is ejected)
    0x4003		Undocked (see 0x2x04), can sleep again
    0x4010		Docked into hotplug port replicator (non-ACPI dock)
    0x4011		Undocked from hotplug port replicator (non-ACPI dock)
    0x500B		Tablet pen inserted into its storage bay
    0x500C		Tablet pen removed from its storage bay
    0x6011		ALARM: battery is too hot
    0x6012		ALARM: battery is extremely hot
    0x6021		ALARM: a sensor is too hot
    0x6022		ALARM: a sensor is extremely hot
    0x6030		System thermal table changed
    0x6040		Nvidia Optimus/AC adapter related (TO BE VERIFIED)
    Battery nearly empty alarms are a last resort attempt to get the
    operating system to hibernate or shutdown cleanly (0x2313), or shutdown
    cleanly (0x2413) before power is lost.  They must be acted upon, as the
    wake up caused by the firmware will have negated most safety nets...
    When any of the "too hot" alarms happen, according to Lenovo the user
    should suspend or hibernate the laptop (and in the case of battery
    alarms, unplug the AC adapter) to let it cool down.  These alarms do
    signal that something is wrong, they should never happen on normal
    operating conditions.
    The "extremely hot" alarms are emergencies.  According to Lenovo, the
    operating system is to force either an immediate suspend or hibernate
    cycle, or a system shutdown.  Obviously, something is very wrong if this
    Brightness hotkey notes:
    Don't mess with the brightness hotkeys in a Thinkpad.  If you want
    notifications for OSD, use the sysfs backlight class event support.
    The driver will issue KEY_BRIGHTNESS_UP and KEY_BRIGHTNESS_DOWN events
    automatically for the cases were userspace has to do something to
    implement brightness changes.  When you override these events, you will
    either fail to handle properly the ThinkPads that require explicit
    action to change backlight brightness, or the ThinkPads that require
    that no action be taken to work properly.
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/bluetooth
    sysfs device attribute: bluetooth_enable (deprecated)
    sysfs rfkill class: switch "tpacpi_bluetooth_sw"
    This feature shows the presence and current state of a ThinkPad
    Bluetooth device in the internal ThinkPad CDC slot.
    If the ThinkPad supports it, the Bluetooth state is stored in NVRAM,
    so it is kept across reboots and power-off.
    Procfs notes:
    If Bluetooth is installed, the following commands can be used:
    	echo enable > /proc/acpi/ibm/bluetooth
    	echo disable > /proc/acpi/ibm/bluetooth
    Sysfs notes:
    	If the Bluetooth CDC card is installed, it can be enabled /
    	disabled through the "bluetooth_enable" thinkpad-acpi device
    	attribute, and its current status can also be queried.
    		0: disables Bluetooth / Bluetooth is disabled
    		1: enables Bluetooth / Bluetooth is enabled.
    	Note: this interface has been superseded by the	generic rfkill
    	class.  It has been deprecated, and it will be removed in year
    	rfkill controller switch "tpacpi_bluetooth_sw": refer to
    	Documentation/rfkill.txt for details.
    Video output control -- /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    This feature allows control over the devices used for video output -
    LCD, CRT or DVI (if available). The following commands are available:
    	echo lcd_enable > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    	echo lcd_disable > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    	echo crt_enable > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    	echo crt_disable > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    	echo dvi_enable > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    	echo dvi_disable > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    	echo auto_enable > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    	echo auto_disable > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    	echo expand_toggle > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    	echo video_switch > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    NOTE: Access to this feature is restricted to processes owning the
    CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability for safety reasons, as it can interact badly
    enough with some versions of to crash it.
    Each video output device can be enabled or disabled individually.
    Reading /proc/acpi/ibm/video shows the status of each device.
    Automatic video switching can be enabled or disabled.  When automatic
    video switching is enabled, certain events (e.g. opening the lid,
    docking or undocking) cause the video output device to change
    automatically. While this can be useful, it also causes flickering
    and, on the X40, video corruption. By disabling automatic switching,
    the flickering or video corruption can be avoided.
    The video_switch command cycles through the available video outputs
    (it simulates the behavior of Fn-F7).
    Video expansion can be toggled through this feature. This controls
    whether the display is expanded to fill the entire LCD screen when a
    mode with less than full resolution is used. Note that the current
    video expansion status cannot be determined through this feature.
    Note that on many models (particularly those using Radeon graphics
    chips) the X driver configures the video card in a way which prevents
    Fn-F7 from working. This also disables the video output switching
    features of this driver, as it uses the same ACPI methods as
    Fn-F7. Video switching on the console should still work.
    UPDATE: refer to
    ThinkLight control
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/light
    sysfs attributes: as per LED class, for the "tpacpi::thinklight" LED
    procfs notes:
    The ThinkLight status can be read and set through the procfs interface.  A
    few models which do not make the status available will show the ThinkLight
    status as "unknown". The available commands are:
    	echo on  > /proc/acpi/ibm/light
    	echo off > /proc/acpi/ibm/light
    sysfs notes:
    The ThinkLight sysfs interface is documented by the LED class
    documentation, in Documentation/leds/leds-class.txt.  The ThinkLight LED name
    is "tpacpi::thinklight".
    Due to limitations in the sysfs LED class, if the status of the ThinkLight
    cannot be read or if it is unknown, thinkpad-acpi will report it as "off".
    It is impossible to know if the status returned through sysfs is valid.
    CMOS/UCMS control
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/cmos
    sysfs device attribute: cmos_command
    This feature is mostly used internally by the ACPI firmware to keep the legacy
    CMOS NVRAM bits in sync with the current machine state, and to record this
    state so that the ThinkPad will retain such settings across reboots.
    Some of these commands actually perform actions in some ThinkPad models, but
    this is expected to disappear more and more in newer models.  As an example, in
    a T43 and in a X40, commands 12 and 13 still control the ThinkLight state for
    real, but commands 0 to 2 don't control the mixer anymore (they have been
    phased out) and just update the NVRAM.
    The range of valid cmos command numbers is 0 to 21, but not all have an
    effect and the behavior varies from model to model.  Here is the behavior
    on the X40 (tpb is the ThinkPad Buttons utility):
    	0 - Related to "Volume down" key press
    	1 - Related to "Volume up" key press
    	2 - Related to "Mute on" key press
    	3 - Related to "Access IBM" key press
    	4 - Related to "LCD brightness up" key press
    	5 - Related to "LCD brightness down" key press
    	11 - Related to "toggle screen expansion" key press/function
    	12 - Related to "ThinkLight on"
    	13 - Related to "ThinkLight off"
    	14 - Related to "ThinkLight" key press (toggle ThinkLight)
    The cmos command interface is prone to firmware split-brain problems, as
    in newer ThinkPads it is just a compatibility layer.  Do not use it, it is
    exported just as a debug tool.
    LED control
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/led
    sysfs attributes: as per LED class, see below for names
    Some of the LED indicators can be controlled through this feature.  On
    some older ThinkPad models, it is possible to query the status of the
    LED indicators as well.  Newer ThinkPads cannot query the real status
    of the LED indicators.
    Because misuse of the LEDs could induce an unaware user to perform
    dangerous actions (like undocking or ejecting a bay device while the
    buses are still active), or mask an important alarm (such as a nearly
    empty battery, or a broken battery), access to most LEDs is
    Unrestricted access to all LEDs requires that thinkpad-acpi be
    compiled with the CONFIG_THINKPAD_ACPI_UNSAFE_LEDS option enabled.
    Distributions must never enable this option.  Individual users that
    are aware of the consequences are welcome to enabling it.
    Audio mute and microphone mute LEDs are supported, but currently not
    visible to userspace. They are used by the snd-hda-intel audio driver.
    procfs notes:
    The available commands are:
    	echo '<LED number> on' >/proc/acpi/ibm/led
    	echo '<LED number> off' >/proc/acpi/ibm/led
    	echo '<LED number> blink' >/proc/acpi/ibm/led
    The <LED number> range is 0 to 15. The set of LEDs that can be
    controlled varies from model to model. Here is the common ThinkPad
    	0 - power
    	1 - battery (orange)
    	2 - battery (green)
    	3 - UltraBase/dock
    	4 - UltraBay
    	5 - UltraBase battery slot
    	6 - (unknown)
    	7 - standby
    	8 - dock status 1
    	9 - dock status 2
    	10, 11 - (unknown)
    	12 - thinkvantage
    	13, 14, 15 - (unknown)
    All of the above can be turned on and off and can be made to blink.
    sysfs notes:
    The ThinkPad LED sysfs interface is described in detail by the LED class
    documentation, in Documentation/leds/leds-class.txt.
    The LEDs are named (in LED ID order, from 0 to 12):
    "tpacpi::power", "tpacpi:orange:batt", "tpacpi:green:batt",
    "tpacpi::dock_active", "tpacpi::bay_active", "tpacpi::dock_batt",
    "tpacpi::unknown_led", "tpacpi::standby", "tpacpi::dock_status1",
    "tpacpi::dock_status2", "tpacpi::unknown_led2", "tpacpi::unknown_led3",
    Due to limitations in the sysfs LED class, if the status of the LED
    indicators cannot be read due to an error, thinkpad-acpi will report it as
    a brightness of zero (same as LED off).
    If the thinkpad firmware doesn't support reading the current status,
    trying to read the current LED brightness will just return whatever
    brightness was last written to that attribute.
    These LEDs can blink using hardware acceleration.  To request that a
    ThinkPad indicator LED should blink in hardware accelerated mode, use the
    "timer" trigger, and leave the delay_on and delay_off parameters set to
    zero (to request hardware acceleration autodetection).
    LEDs that are known not to exist in a given ThinkPad model are not
    made available through the sysfs interface.  If you have a dock and you
    notice there are LEDs listed for your ThinkPad that do not exist (and
    are not in the dock), or if you notice that there are missing LEDs,
    a report to is appreciated.
    ACPI sounds -- /proc/acpi/ibm/beep
    The BEEP method is used internally by the ACPI firmware to provide
    audible alerts in various situations. This feature allows the same
    sounds to be triggered manually.
    The commands are non-negative integer numbers:
    	echo <number> >/proc/acpi/ibm/beep
    The valid <number> range is 0 to 17. Not all numbers trigger sounds
    and the sounds vary from model to model. Here is the behavior on the
    	0 - stop a sound in progress (but use 17 to stop 16)
    	2 - two beeps, pause, third beep ("low battery")
    	3 - single beep
    	4 - high, followed by low-pitched beep ("unable")
    	5 - single beep
    	6 - very high, followed by high-pitched beep ("AC/DC")
    	7 - high-pitched beep
    	9 - three short beeps
    	10 - very long beep
    	12 - low-pitched beep
    	15 - three high-pitched beeps repeating constantly, stop with 0
    	16 - one medium-pitched beep repeating constantly, stop with 17
    	17 - stop 16
    Temperature sensors
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/thermal
    sysfs device attributes: (hwmon "thinkpad") temp*_input
    Most ThinkPads include six or more separate temperature sensors but only
    expose the CPU temperature through the standard ACPI methods.  This
    feature shows readings from up to eight different sensors on older
    ThinkPads, and up to sixteen different sensors on newer ThinkPads.
    For example, on the X40, a typical output may be:
    temperatures:   42 42 45 41 36 -128 33 -128
    On the T43/p, a typical output may be:
    temperatures:   48 48 36 52 38 -128 31 -128 48 52 48 -128 -128 -128 -128 -128
    The mapping of thermal sensors to physical locations varies depending on
    system-board model (and thus, on ThinkPad model). is a public wiki page that
    tries to track down these locations for various models.
    Most (newer?) models seem to follow this pattern:
    1:  CPU
    2:  (depends on model)
    3:  (depends on model)
    4:  GPU
    5:  Main battery: main sensor
    6:  Bay battery: main sensor
    7:  Main battery: secondary sensor
    8:  Bay battery: secondary sensor
    9-15: (depends on model)
    For the R51 (source: Thomas Gruber):
    2:  Mini-PCI
    3:  Internal HDD
    For the T43, T43/p (source: Shmidoax/
    2:  System board, left side (near PCMCIA slot), reported as HDAPS temp
    3:  PCMCIA slot
    9:  MCH (northbridge) to DRAM Bus
    10: Clock-generator, mini-pci card and ICH (southbridge), under Mini-PCI
        card, under touchpad
    11: Power regulator, underside of system board, below F2 key
    The A31 has a very atypical layout for the thermal sensors
    (source: Milos Popovic,
    1:  CPU
    2:  Main Battery: main sensor
    3:  Power Converter
    4:  Bay Battery: main sensor
    5:  MCH (northbridge)
    6:  PCMCIA/ambient
    7:  Main Battery: secondary sensor
    8:  Bay Battery: secondary sensor
    Procfs notes:
    	Readings from sensors that are not available return -128.
    	No commands can be written to this file.
    Sysfs notes:
    	Sensors that are not available return the ENXIO error.  This
    	status may change at runtime, as there are hotplug thermal
    	sensors, like those inside the batteries and docks.
    	thinkpad-acpi thermal sensors are reported through the hwmon
    	subsystem, and follow all of the hwmon guidelines at
    EXPERIMENTAL: Embedded controller register dump
    This feature is not included in the thinkpad driver anymore.
    Instead the EC can be accessed through /sys/kernel/debug/ec with
    a userspace tool which can be found here:
    Use it to determine the register holding the fan
    speed on some models. To do that, do the following:
    	- make sure the battery is fully charged
    	- make sure the fan is running
    	- use above mentioned tool to read out the EC
    Often fan and temperature values vary between
    readings. Since temperatures don't change vary fast, you can take
    several quick dumps to eliminate them.
    You can use a similar method to figure out the meaning of other
    embedded controller registers - e.g. make sure nothing else changes
    except the charging or discharging battery to determine which
    registers contain the current battery capacity, etc. If you experiment
    with this, do send me your results (including some complete dumps with
    a description of the conditions when they were taken.)
    LCD brightness control
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/brightness
    sysfs backlight device "thinkpad_screen"
    This feature allows software control of the LCD brightness on ThinkPad
    models which don't have a hardware brightness slider.
    It has some limitations: the LCD backlight cannot be actually turned
    on or off by this interface, it just controls the backlight brightness
    On IBM (and some of the earlier Lenovo) ThinkPads, the backlight control
    has eight brightness levels, ranging from 0 to 7.  Some of the levels
    may not be distinct.  Later Lenovo models that implement the ACPI
    display backlight brightness control methods have 16 levels, ranging
    from 0 to 15.
    For IBM ThinkPads, there are two interfaces to the firmware for direct
    brightness control, EC and UCMS (or CMOS).  To select which one should be
    used, use the brightness_mode module parameter: brightness_mode=1 selects
    EC mode, brightness_mode=2 selects UCMS mode, brightness_mode=3 selects EC
    mode with NVRAM backing (so that brightness changes are remembered across
    The driver tries to select which interface to use from a table of
    defaults for each ThinkPad model.  If it makes a wrong choice, please
    report this as a bug, so that we can fix it.
    Lenovo ThinkPads only support brightness_mode=2 (UCMS).
    When display backlight brightness controls are available through the
    standard ACPI interface, it is best to use it instead of this direct
    ThinkPad-specific interface.  The driver will disable its native
    backlight brightness control interface if it detects that the standard
    ACPI interface is available in the ThinkPad.
    If you want to use the thinkpad-acpi backlight brightness control
    instead of the generic ACPI video backlight brightness control for some
    reason, you should use the acpi_backlight=vendor kernel parameter.
    The brightness_enable module parameter can be used to control whether
    the LCD brightness control feature will be enabled when available.
    brightness_enable=0 forces it to be disabled.  brightness_enable=1
    forces it to be enabled when available, even if the standard ACPI
    interface is also available.
    Procfs notes:
    	The available commands are:
    	echo up   >/proc/acpi/ibm/brightness
    	echo down >/proc/acpi/ibm/brightness
    	echo 'level <level>' >/proc/acpi/ibm/brightness
    Sysfs notes:
    The interface is implemented through the backlight sysfs class, which is
    poorly documented at this time.
    Locate the thinkpad_screen device under /sys/class/backlight, and inside
    it there will be the following attributes:
    		Reads the maximum brightness the hardware can be set to.
    		The minimum is always zero.
    		Reads what brightness the screen is set to at this instant.
    		Writes request the driver to change brightness to the
    		given value.  Reads will tell you what brightness the
    		driver is trying to set the display to when "power" is set
    		to zero and the display has not been dimmed by a kernel
    		power management event.
    		power management mode, where 0 is "display on", and 1 to 3
    		will dim the display backlight to brightness level 0
    		because thinkpad-acpi cannot really turn the backlight
    		off.  Kernel power management events can temporarily
    		increase the current power management level, i.e. they can
    		dim the display.
        Whatever you do, do NOT ever call thinkpad-acpi backlight-level change
        interface and the ACPI-based backlight level change interface
        (available on newer BIOSes, and driven by the Linux ACPI video driver)
        at the same time.  The two will interact in bad ways, do funny things,
        and maybe reduce the life of the backlight lamps by needlessly kicking
        its level up and down at every change.
    Volume control (Console Audio control)
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/volume
    ALSA: "ThinkPad Console Audio Control", default ID: "ThinkPadEC"
    NOTE: by default, the volume control interface operates in read-only
    mode, as it is supposed to be used for on-screen-display purposes.
    The read/write mode can be enabled through the use of the
    "volume_control=1" module parameter.
    NOTE: distros are urged to not enable volume_control by default, this
    should be done by the local admin only.  The ThinkPad UI is for the
    console audio control to be done through the volume keys only, and for
    the desktop environment to just provide on-screen-display feedback.
    Software volume control should be done only in the main AC97/HDA
    About the ThinkPad Console Audio control:
    ThinkPads have a built-in amplifier and muting circuit that drives the
    console headphone and speakers.  This circuit is after the main AC97
    or HDA mixer in the audio path, and under exclusive control of the
    ThinkPads have three special hotkeys to interact with the console
    audio control: volume up, volume down and mute.
    It is worth noting that the normal way the mute function works (on
    ThinkPads that do not have a "mute LED") is:
    1. Press mute to mute.  It will *always* mute, you can press it as
       many times as you want, and the sound will remain mute.
    2. Press either volume key to unmute the ThinkPad (it will _not_
       change the volume, it will just unmute).
    This is a very superior design when compared to the cheap software-only
    mute-toggle solution found on normal consumer laptops:  you can be
    absolutely sure the ThinkPad will not make noise if you press the mute
    button, no matter the previous state.
    The IBM ThinkPads, and the earlier Lenovo ThinkPads have variable-gain
    amplifiers driving the speakers and headphone output, and the firmware
    also handles volume control for the headphone and speakers on these
    ThinkPads without any help from the operating system (this volume
    control stage exists after the main AC97 or HDA mixer in the audio
    The newer Lenovo models only have firmware mute control, and depend on
    the main HDA mixer to do volume control (which is done by the operating
    system).  In this case, the volume keys are filtered out for unmute
    key press (there are some firmware bugs in this area) and delivered as
    normal key presses to the operating system (thinkpad-acpi is not
    The ThinkPad-ACPI volume control:
    The preferred way to interact with the Console Audio control is the
    ALSA interface.
    The legacy procfs interface allows one to read the current state,
    and if volume control is enabled, accepts the following commands:
    	echo up   >/proc/acpi/ibm/volume
    	echo down >/proc/acpi/ibm/volume
    	echo mute >/proc/acpi/ibm/volume
    	echo unmute >/proc/acpi/ibm/volume
    	echo 'level <level>' >/proc/acpi/ibm/volume
    The <level> number range is 0 to 14 although not all of them may be
    distinct. To unmute the volume after the mute command, use either the
    up or down command (the level command will not unmute the volume), or
    the unmute command.
    You can use the volume_capabilities parameter to tell the driver
    whether your thinkpad has volume control or mute-only control:
    volume_capabilities=1 for mixers with mute and volume control,
    volume_capabilities=2 for mixers with only mute control.
    If the driver misdetects the capabilities for your ThinkPad model,
    please report this to, so that we
    can update the driver.
    There are two strategies for volume control.  To select which one
    should be used, use the volume_mode module parameter: volume_mode=1
    selects EC mode, and volume_mode=3 selects EC mode with NVRAM backing
    (so that volume/mute changes are remembered across shutdown/reboot).
    The driver will operate in volume_mode=3 by default. If that does not
    work well on your ThinkPad model, please report this to
    The driver supports the standard ALSA module parameters.  If the ALSA
    mixer is disabled, the driver will disable all volume functionality.
    Fan control and monitoring: fan speed, fan enable/disable
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/fan
    sysfs device attributes: (hwmon "thinkpad") fan1_input, pwm1,
    			  pwm1_enable, fan2_input
    sysfs hwmon driver attributes: fan_watchdog
    NOTE NOTE NOTE: fan control operations are disabled by default for
    safety reasons.  To enable them, the module parameter "fan_control=1"
    must be given to thinkpad-acpi.
    This feature attempts to show the current fan speed, control mode and
    other fan data that might be available.  The speed is read directly
    from the hardware registers of the embedded controller.  This is known
    to work on later R, T, X and Z series ThinkPads but may show a bogus
    value on other models.
    Some Lenovo ThinkPads support a secondary fan.  This fan cannot be
    controlled separately, it shares the main fan control.
    Fan levels:
    Most ThinkPad fans work in "levels" at the firmware interface.  Level 0
    stops the fan.  The higher the level, the higher the fan speed, although
    adjacent levels often map to the same fan speed.  7 is the highest
    level, where the fan reaches the maximum recommended speed.
    Level "auto" means the EC changes the fan level according to some
    internal algorithm, usually based on readings from the thermal sensors.
    There is also a "full-speed" level, also known as "disengaged" level.
    In this level, the EC disables the speed-locked closed-loop fan control,
    and drives the fan as fast as it can go, which might exceed hardware
    limits, so use this level with caution.
    The fan usually ramps up or down slowly from one speed to another, and
    it is normal for the EC to take several seconds to react to fan
    commands.  The full-speed level may take up to two minutes to ramp up to
    maximum speed, and in some ThinkPads, the tachometer readings go stale
    while the EC is transitioning to the full-speed level.
    WARNING WARNING WARNING: do not leave the fan disabled unless you are
    monitoring all of the temperature sensor readings and you are ready to
    enable it if necessary to avoid overheating.
    An enabled fan in level "auto" may stop spinning if the EC decides the
    ThinkPad is cool enough and doesn't need the extra airflow.  This is
    normal, and the EC will spin the fan up if the various thermal readings
    rise too much.
    On the X40, this seems to depend on the CPU and HDD temperatures.
    Specifically, the fan is turned on when either the CPU temperature
    climbs to 56 degrees or the HDD temperature climbs to 46 degrees.  The
    fan is turned off when the CPU temperature drops to 49 degrees and the
    HDD temperature drops to 41 degrees.  These thresholds cannot
    currently be controlled.
    The ThinkPad's ACPI DSDT code will reprogram the fan on its own when
    certain conditions are met.  It will override any fan programming done
    through thinkpad-acpi.
    The thinkpad-acpi kernel driver can be programmed to revert the fan
    level to a safe setting if userspace does not issue one of the procfs
    fan commands: "enable", "disable", "level" or "watchdog", or if there
    are no writes to pwm1_enable (or to pwm1 *if and only if* pwm1_enable is
    set to 1, manual mode) within a configurable amount of time of up to
    120 seconds.  This functionality is called fan safety watchdog.
    Note that the watchdog timer stops after it enables the fan.  It will be
    rearmed again automatically (using the same interval) when one of the
    above mentioned fan commands is received.  The fan watchdog is,
    therefore, not suitable to protect against fan mode changes made through
    means other than the "enable", "disable", and "level" procfs fan
    commands, or the hwmon fan control sysfs interface.
    Procfs notes:
    The fan may be enabled or disabled with the following commands:
    	echo enable  >/proc/acpi/ibm/fan
    	echo disable >/proc/acpi/ibm/fan
    Placing a fan on level 0 is the same as disabling it.  Enabling a fan
    will try to place it in a safe level if it is too slow or disabled.
    The fan level can be controlled with the command:
    	echo 'level <level>' > /proc/acpi/ibm/fan
    Where <level> is an integer from 0 to 7, or one of the words "auto" or
    "full-speed" (without the quotes).  Not all ThinkPads support the "auto"
    and "full-speed" levels.  The driver accepts "disengaged" as an alias for
    "full-speed", and reports it as "disengaged" for backwards
    On the X31 and X40 (and ONLY on those models), the fan speed can be
    controlled to a certain degree.  Once the fan is running, it can be
    forced to run faster or slower with the following command:
    	echo 'speed <speed>' > /proc/acpi/ibm/fan
    The sustainable range of fan speeds on the X40 appears to be from about
    3700 to about 7350. Values outside this range either do not have any
    effect or the fan speed eventually settles somewhere in that range.  The
    fan cannot be stopped or started with this command.  This functionality
    is incomplete, and not available through the sysfs interface.
    To program the safety watchdog, use the "watchdog" command.
    	echo 'watchdog <interval in seconds>' > /proc/acpi/ibm/fan
    If you want to disable the watchdog, use 0 as the interval.
    Sysfs notes:
    The sysfs interface follows the hwmon subsystem guidelines for the most
    part, and the exception is the fan safety watchdog.
    Writes to any of the sysfs attributes may return the EINVAL error if
    that operation is not supported in a given ThinkPad or if the parameter
    is out-of-bounds, and EPERM if it is forbidden.  They may also return
    EINTR (interrupted system call), and EIO (I/O error while trying to talk
    to the firmware).
    Features not yet implemented by the driver return ENOSYS.
    hwmon device attribute pwm1_enable:
    	0: PWM offline (fan is set to full-speed mode)
    	1: Manual PWM control (use pwm1 to set fan level)
    	2: Hardware PWM control (EC "auto" mode)
    	3: reserved (Software PWM control, not implemented yet)
    	Modes 0 and 2 are not supported by all ThinkPads, and the
    	driver is not always able to detect this.  If it does know a
    	mode is unsupported, it will return -EINVAL.
    hwmon device attribute pwm1:
    	Fan level, scaled from the firmware values of 0-7 to the hwmon
    	scale of 0-255.  0 means fan stopped, 255 means highest normal
    	speed (level 7).
    	This attribute only commands the fan if pmw1_enable is set to 1
    	(manual PWM control).
    hwmon device attribute fan1_input:
    	Fan tachometer reading, in RPM.  May go stale on certain
    	ThinkPads while the EC transitions the PWM to offline mode,
    	which can take up to two minutes.  May return rubbish on older
    hwmon device attribute fan2_input:
    	Fan tachometer reading, in RPM, for the secondary fan.
    	Available only on some ThinkPads.  If the secondary fan is
    	not installed, will always read 0.
    hwmon driver attribute fan_watchdog:
    	Fan safety watchdog timer interval, in seconds.  Minimum is
    	1 second, maximum is 120 seconds.  0 disables the watchdog.
    To stop the fan: set pwm1 to zero, and pwm1_enable to 1.
    To start the fan in a safe mode: set pwm1_enable to 2.  If that fails
    with EINVAL, try to set pwm1_enable to 1 and pwm1 to at least 128 (255
    would be the safest choice, though).
    procfs: /proc/acpi/ibm/wan
    sysfs device attribute: wwan_enable (deprecated)
    sysfs rfkill class: switch "tpacpi_wwan_sw"
    This feature shows the presence and current state of the built-in
    Wireless WAN device.
    If the ThinkPad supports it, the WWAN state is stored in NVRAM,
    so it is kept across reboots and power-off.
    It was tested on a Lenovo ThinkPad X60. It should probably work on other
    ThinkPad models which come with this module installed.
    Procfs notes:
    If the W-WAN card is installed, the following commands can be used:
    	echo enable > /proc/acpi/ibm/wan
    	echo disable > /proc/acpi/ibm/wan
    Sysfs notes:
    	If the W-WAN card is installed, it can be enabled /
    	disabled through the "wwan_enable" thinkpad-acpi device
    	attribute, and its current status can also be queried.
    		0: disables WWAN card / WWAN card is disabled
    		1: enables WWAN card / WWAN card is enabled.
    	Note: this interface has been superseded by the	generic rfkill
    	class.  It has been deprecated, and it will be removed in year
    	rfkill controller switch "tpacpi_wwan_sw": refer to
    	Documentation/rfkill.txt for details.
    This feature is considered EXPERIMENTAL because it has not been extensively
    tested and validated in various ThinkPad models yet.  The feature may not
    work as expected. USE WITH CAUTION! To use this feature, you need to supply
    the experimental=1 parameter when loading the module.
    sysfs rfkill class: switch "tpacpi_uwb_sw"
    This feature exports an rfkill controller for the UWB device, if one is
    present and enabled in the BIOS.
    Sysfs notes:
    	rfkill controller switch "tpacpi_uwb_sw": refer to
    	Documentation/rfkill.txt for details.
    Adaptive keyboard
    sysfs device attribute: adaptive_kbd_mode
    This sysfs attribute controls the keyboard "face" that will be shown on the
    Lenovo X1 Carbon 2nd gen (2014)'s adaptive keyboard. The value can be read
    and set.
    1 = Home mode
    2 = Web-browser mode
    3 = Web-conference mode
    4 = Function mode
    5 = Layflat mode
    For more details about which buttons will appear depending on the mode, please
    review the laptop's user guide:
    Multiple Commands, Module Parameters
    Multiple commands can be written to the proc files in one shot by
    separating them with commas, for example:
    	echo enable,0xffff > /proc/acpi/ibm/hotkey
    	echo lcd_disable,crt_enable > /proc/acpi/ibm/video
    Commands can also be specified when loading the thinkpad-acpi module,
    for example:
    	modprobe thinkpad_acpi hotkey=enable,0xffff video=auto_disable
    Enabling debugging output
    The module takes a debug parameter which can be used to selectively
    enable various classes of debugging output, for example:
    	 modprobe thinkpad_acpi debug=0xffff
    will enable all debugging output classes.  It takes a bitmask, so
    to enable more than one output class, just add their values.
    	Debug bitmask		Description
    	0x8000			Disclose PID of userspace programs
    				accessing some functions of the driver
    	0x0001			Initialization and probing
    	0x0002			Removal
    	0x0004			RF Transmitter control (RFKILL)
    				(bluetooth, WWAN, UWB...)
    	0x0008			HKEY event interface, hotkeys
    	0x0010			Fan control
    	0x0020			Backlight brightness
    	0x0040			Audio mixer/volume control
    There is also a kernel build option to enable more debugging
    information, which may be necessary to debug driver problems.
    The level of debugging information output by the driver can be changed
    at runtime through sysfs, using the driver attribute debug_level.  The
    attribute takes the same bitmask as the debug module parameter above.
    Force loading of module
    If thinkpad-acpi refuses to detect your ThinkPad, you can try to specify
    the module parameter force_load=1.  Regardless of whether this works or
    not, please contact with a report.
    Sysfs interface changelog:
    0x000100:	Initial sysfs support, as a single platform driver and
    0x000200:	Hot key support for 32 hot keys, and radio slider switch
    0x010000:	Hot keys are now handled by default over the input
    		layer, the radio switch generates input event EV_RADIO,
    		and the driver enables hot key handling by default in
    		the firmware.
    0x020000:	ABI fix: added a separate hwmon platform device and
    		driver, which must be located by name (thinkpad)
    		and the hwmon class for libsensors4 (lm-sensors 3)
    		compatibility.  Moved all hwmon attributes to this
    		new platform device.
    0x020100:	Marker for thinkpad-acpi with hot key NVRAM polling
    		support.  If you must, use it to know you should not
    		start a userspace NVRAM poller (allows to detect when
    		NVRAM is compiled out by the user because it is
    		unneeded/undesired in the first place).
    0x020101:	Marker for thinkpad-acpi with hot key NVRAM polling
    		and proper hotkey_mask semantics (version 8 of the
    		NVRAM polling patch).  Some development snapshots of
    		0.18 had an earlier version that did strange things
    		to hotkey_mask.
    0x020200:	Add poll()/select() support to the following attributes:
    		hotkey_radio_sw, wakeup_hotunplug_complete, wakeup_reason
    0x020300:	hotkey enable/disable support removed, attributes
    		hotkey_bios_enabled and hotkey_enable deprecated and
    		marked for removal.
    0x020400:	Marker for 16 LEDs support.  Also, LEDs that are known
    		to not exist in a given model are not registered with
    		the LED sysfs class anymore.
    0x020500:	Updated hotkey driver, hotkey_mask is always available
    		and it is always able to disable hot keys.  Very old
    		thinkpads are properly supported.  hotkey_bios_mask
    		is deprecated and marked for removal.
    0x020600:	Marker for backlight change event support.
    0x020700:	Support for mute-only mixers.
    		Volume control in read-only mode by default.
    		Marker for ALSA mixer support.

    public by charlwillia6  496  2  3  0

    Powershell command to rename files to lowercase

    Powershell command to rename files to lowercase: batch_rename_to_lowercase.txt
    Get-ChildItem "C:\Path\To\Pics" -recurse | Where {-Not $_.PSIsContainer} | Rename-Item -NewName {$_.FullName.ToLower()}
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